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Kamelia M. Osman, Sherif H. Marouf, and A. A. Nayerah, " Antimicrobial Resistance and Virulence-Associated Genes of Salmonella enterica Subsp. enterica Serotypes Muenster, Floria, Omuna and Noya Strains Isolated from Clinically Diarrheic Humans in Egypt", MICROBIAL DRUG RESISTANCE , 2013 ھ, vol. Volume 00, , pp. Number 00, 2013 ھ , 2013.
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, " Brucellosis as the main cause of reproductive failure among cows and buffaloes", . Egyptian Society of Animal Repoduction and Fertility 9th Annual Cong. Giza 12-14 February,1997., 1997.
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, " Efficiency of abortus bang ring test and whey agglutionation test in detection of Brucella infected cows and buffaloes", Egyptian Society of Animal Repoduction and Fertility 9th Annual Cong. Giza 12-14 February,1997., 1997.
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., K. O.;, M. El-Enbaawy, and H. Amer, " Incidence and SDS-PAGE protien profile analysis for mycoplasma spp. and Acholeplasma spp.isolated from Camel in Egypt", The 8th Scientific conference , Vet . Med. J. 2005, vol. 53 ( 2), pp. 231- 239, 2005.
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Osman, K. M., M. I. El-Enbaawy, N. A. Ezzeldeen, and H. M. G. Hussein, ". A rapid screening identification of Clostridium perfringens alpha and epsilon toxins recovered from mastitic bovine milk by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis", OIE - World Organisation for Animal Health Scientific and Technical 2009 , vol. 28, pp. 975-986, 2009.
K, O., A. M, K. A, and M. K, ". Molecular detection of the Aeromonas virulence aerolysin gene in retail meats from different animal sources in Egypt.", World J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2012, vol. 28:, pp. 1863-1870, 2012.
A
Osman, K. M., A. M. Hessain, U. H. Abo-Shama, Z. M. Girh, S. A. Kabli, H. A. Hemeg, and I. M. Moussa, "An alternative approach for evaluating the phenotypic virulence factors of pathogenic .", Saudi journal of biological sciences, vol. 25, issue 2, pp. 195-197, 2018 Feb. Abstract

is a recognized zoonotic food-borne pathogen; however, the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the underdeveloped countries to differentiate pathogenic from non-pathogenic is a problematic issue. Our grail was to assess the phenotypic virulence markers motility, hemolysin, congo red agar, embryo lethality assay and serum resistance for pathogenic (PEC) correlated to PCR tests which is currently used world-wide to evaluate the PEC. The 448 strains of that were isolated from different sources, were characterized for phenotypic virulence factors such as motility, hemolysin, Congo red binding, Embryo Lethality assay (ELA) and serum resistance, as well as antibiotic susceptibility using disc diffusion method to 23 antibiotics Results exhibited 100% motility and Congo red binding, 97.1% for hemolysin production and 90.2% in the ELA. As a result, we were able to hypothetically conclude that the aforementioned virulence markers are plain, straightforward, economical, rapid, more dynamic, uncomplicated methodology, duplicatable and cost next to nothing when compared to the molecular PCR. Their implementation in a diagnostic microbiology laboratory for vetting is a rewarding task in the underdeveloped countries. It augments endeavors to minimize the use of PCR in our investigations especially during epidemiological and outbreak investigations of PEC.

, "Anaerobes in raw milk of camel ", Zagazig University Medical Journal ,, vol. Vol III , pp. 329-337., 1997.
Osman, K., A. Orabi, I. radwan, and mona arfat, "Antibiogram for Major Pathogens Recovered From Broilers swollen Head Syndrome", Journal of global bioscience , vol. 4, pp. 2650-2655, 2015.
, "Antibiogram patterns of some bacteria recovered from diarrhoeic calves in Egypt ", J. Egypt. Vet. Med. Ass .., vol. 55 , pp. 721-737, 1995.
Osman, K. M., and M. El Hariri, "Antibiotic resistance of Clostridium perfringens isolates from broiler chickens in Egypt", Rev. sci. tech. Off. int. Epiz., 2013, vol. 32 (3), pp. 841-850, 2013.
Osman, K., S. fathy, and M. kamel, "Antibiotic resistance profile for staphylococcus species recovered from milk ", Arab journal of nuclear sciences and application, vol. 78(1), pp. 1-14, 2014.
Osman, K., A. Alvarez-Ordóñez, L. Ruiz, J. Badr, F. ElHofy, K. S. Al-Maary, I. M. I. Moussa, A. M. Hessain, A. Orabi, A. Saad, et al., "Antimicrobial resistance and virulence characterization of Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci from imported beef meat.", Annals of clinical microbiology and antimicrobials, vol. 16, issue 1, pp. 35, 2017 May 10. Abstract

BACKGROUND: The objectives of this study were to characterize the diversity and magnitude of antimicrobial resistance among Staphylococcus species recovered from imported beef meat sold in the Egyptian market and the potential mechanisms underlying the antimicrobial resistance phenotypes including harboring of resistance genes (mecA, cfr, gyrA, gyrB, and grlA) and biofilm formation.

RESULTS: The resistance gene mecA was detected in 50% of methicillin-resistant non-Staphylococcus aureus isolates (4/8). Interestingly, our results showed that: (i) resistance genes mecA, gyrA, gyrB, grlA, and cfr were absent in Staphylococcus hominis and Staphylococcus hemolyticus isolates, although S. hominis was phenotypically resistant to methicillin (MR-non-S. aureus) while S. hemolyticus was resistant to vancomycin only; (ii) S. aureus isolates did not carry the mecA gene (100%) and were phenotypically characterized as methicillin- susceptible S. aureus (MSS); and (iii) the resistance gene mecA was present in one isolate (1/3) of Staphylococcus lugdunensis that was phenotypically characterized as methicillin-susceptible non-S. aureus (MSNSA).

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlight the potential risk for consumers, in the absence of actionable risk management information systems, of imported foods and advice a strict implementation of international standards by different venues such as CODEX to avoid the increase in prevalence of coagulase positive and coagulase negative Staphylococcus isolates and their antibiotic resistance genes in imported beef meat at the Egyptian market.

Osman, K. M., A. M. Amer, J. M. Badr, N. M. Helmy, R. A. Elhelw, A. Orabi, M. Bakry, and A. S., "Antimicrobial Resistance, Biofilm Formation and mecA Characterization of Methicillin-Susceptible S. aureus and Non-S. aureus of Beef Meat Origin in Egypt", Frontiers in Microbiology, vol. 7, pp. 222, 2016. Abstract

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have been found in various farm animal species throughout the world. Yet, methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), methicillin-susceptible non-S. aureus (MS-NSA), and methicillin-resistant non-S. aureus (MR-NSA) were not investigated. Therefore, we persued to determine the diversity in their phenotypic virulence assay, phenotypic antimicrobial resistance profile and molecular characterization in one of the food chains in Egypt. Samples were collected during 2013 from beef meat at retail. Twenty seven isolates comprising five species (S. hyicus, S. aureus, S. schleiferi subsp. coagulans, S. intermedius, and S. lentus) were characterized for their antibiotic resistance phenotypic profile and antibiotic resistance genes (mecA, cfr, gyrA, gyrB, and grlA). Out of the 27 Staphylococcus isolates only one isolate was resistant to the 12 antibiotics representing nine classes. Raw beef meat sold across the Great Cairo zone, contains 66.7% of MRS, with highest prevalence was reported in S. aureus (66.7%), while the MRS non-S. aureus strains constituted 66.7% from which S. hyicus (60%), S. intermedius (33.3%), S. schleiferi subsp. coagulans (100%), and S. lentus (100%) were MRS. Seven S. aureus, six S. hyicus, four S. schleiferi subsp. coagulans, three S. intermedius, and one S. lentus isolates although being resistant to oxacillin yet, 11/27 (40.7%) carried the mecA gene. At the same time, the cfr gene was present in 2 of the nine S. aureus isolates, and totally undetectable in S. hyicus, S. schleiferi subsp. coagulans, S. intermedius, and S. lentus. Although, global researches largely focused into MRSA and MR-NSA in animals on pigs, the analysis of our results stipulates, that buffaloes and cattle could be MRSA dispersers and that this theme is not specific to pigs. Detection of MSSA virulence determinants is a must, as although oxacillin resistance may be absent yet, the MSSA may carry the virulence determinants which could be a source of perilous S. aureus for the human community.

Osman, K. M., Hadia A Ali, J. A. ElJakee, M. M. Gaafar, and H. M. Galal, "Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Molecular Typing of Multiple Chlamydiaceae Species Isolated from Genital Infection of Women in Egypt", MICROBIAL DRUG RESISTANCE 2012, vol. Volume 18, Number 4,, pp. 440 -445, 2012.
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, "Biological characterization of Pseudomanas aeruginosa isolated from diseased chickens.", Veterinary Education and Profession Prospectives in the 21st Century. 5th Scientific Congress Proceedings (1998). Vet. Med. J. Giza , vol. 46: , pp. 451-461, 1998.
Osman, K., I. Ibrahim, A. Yousef, and A. A. Nayerah, "Blood heat shock proteins evoked by some Salmonella strains infection in ducks 2012", World J Microbiol Biotechnol 2012, vol. 28, pp. 1997 - 2001, 2012.
, "Brucellosis as the main cause of reproductive failure among cows and buffaloes", Egyptian Society of Animal Repoduction and Fertility 9th Annual Cong. Giza 12-14 February,1997., 1997.
C
, "Campylobacter Jejuni associated with diarrhoea of pet animals and infants", Vet. Med. J. Giza , vol. 39 , pp. 81-89., 1991.
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