Osman, K., J. Badr, M. El-hady, and A. Saad, "Multiple antibiotic resistance of the emerging gut pathogen Enterococcus", Bioscience Research, vol. 15, issue 4, pp. 4625-4629, 2018. 4625-4629-1542018br18-747.pdf
Osman, K. M., A. D. Kappell, F. ElHofy, A. Orabi, A. S. Mubarak, T. M. Dawoud, I. M. I. Moussa, and A. M. Hessain, "Urinary tract infection attributed to Escherichia coli isolated from participants attending an unorganized gathering.", Future microbiology, vol. 13, pp. 757-769, 2018 06 01. Abstract

AIM: Participants in an unorganized gathering are potential hosts of diseases, bringing diseases from around the world to be introduced to a large at-risk population. Therefore, we investigated the gene repertoire in 29 Escherichia coli strains linked to urinary tract infection isolated from patients transferred to the hospital after attending an unorganized gathering in Cairo.

MATERIALS & METHODS: Virulence and resistance determinants, phenotypic antibiotic resistance, biofilm formation, their serotypes and phylogenetic relationships were analyzed.

RESULTS: The 29 tested serovars were phenotypically virulent, with the prevalence of group B2, and resistant to tetracycline, naldixic acid, ampicillin, trimethoprim, neomycin, oxytetracycline and erythromycin encoding the iss virulent gene.

CONCLUSION: A One Health approach is a must to monitor and control E. coli urinary tract infections.

Osman, K. M., A. D. Kappell, F. ElHofy, A. Orabi, A. S. Mubarak, T. M. Dawoud, I. M. I. Moussa, and A. M. Hessain, "Urinary tract infection attributed to Escherichia coli isolated from participants attending an unorganized gathering.", Future microbiology, vol. 13, pp. 757-769, 2018 06 01. Abstract

AIM: Participants in an unorganized gathering are potential hosts of diseases, bringing diseases from around the world to be introduced to a large at-risk population. Therefore, we investigated the gene repertoire in 29 Escherichia coli strains linked to urinary tract infection isolated from patients transferred to the hospital after attending an unorganized gathering in Cairo.

MATERIALS & METHODS: Virulence and resistance determinants, phenotypic antibiotic resistance, biofilm formation, their serotypes and phylogenetic relationships were analyzed.

RESULTS: The 29 tested serovars were phenotypically virulent, with the prevalence of group B2, and resistant to tetracycline, naldixic acid, ampicillin, trimethoprim, neomycin, oxytetracycline and erythromycin encoding the iss virulent gene.

CONCLUSION: A One Health approach is a must to monitor and control E. coli urinary tract infections.

Osman, K. M., A. D. Kappell, A. Orabi, K. S. Al-Maary, A. S. Mubarak, T. M. Dawoud, H. A. Hemeg, I. M. I. Moussa, A. M. Hessain, H. M. Y. Yousef, et al., "Poultry and beef meat as potential seedbeds for antimicrobial resistant enterotoxigenic Bacillus species: a materializing epidemiological and potential severe health hazard.", Scientific reports, vol. 8, issue 1, pp. 11600, 2018 Aug 02. Abstract

Although Bacillus cereus is of particular concern in food safety and public health, the role of other Bacillus species was overlooked. Therefore, we investigated the presence of eight enterotoxigenic genes, a hemolytic gene and phenotypic antibiotic resistance profiles of Bacillus species in retail meat samples. From 255 samples, 124 Bacillus isolates were recovered, 27 belonged to B. cereus and 97 were non-B. cereus species. Interestingly, the non-B. cereus isolates carried the virulence genes and exhibited phenotypic virulence characteristics as the B. cereus. However, correlation matrix analysis revealed the B. cereus group positively correlates with the presence of the genes hblA, hblC, and plc, and the detection of hemolysis (p < 0.05), while the other Bacillus sp. groups are negatively correlated. Tests for antimicrobial resistance against ten antibiotics revealed extensive drug and multi-drug resistant isolates. Statistical analyses didn't support a correlation of antibiotic resistance to tested virulence factors suggesting independence of these phenotypic markers and virulence genes. Of special interest was the isolation of Paenibacillus alvei and Geobacillus stearothermophilus from the imported meat samples being the first recorded. The isolation of non-B. cereus species carrying enterotoxigenic genes in meat within Egypt, suggests their impact on food safety and public health and should therefore not be minimised, posing an area that requires further research.

Osman, K. M., A. D. Kappell, M. Elhadidy, F. E. Mougy, W. A. A. El-Ghany, A. Orabi, A. S. Mubarak, T. M. Dawoud, H. A. Hemeg, I. M. I. Moussa, et al., "Poultry hatcheries as potential reservoirs for antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli: A risk to public health and food safety.", Scientific reports, vol. 8, issue 1, pp. 5859, 2018 Apr 11. Abstract

Hatcheries have the power to spread antimicrobial resistant (AMR) pathogens through the poultry value chain because of their central position in the poultry production chain. Currently, no information is available about the presence of AMR Escherichia coli strains and the antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) they harbor within hatchezries. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the possible involvement of hatcheries in harboring hemolytic AMR E. coli. Serotyping of the 65 isolated hemolytic E. coli revealed 15 serotypes with the ability to produce moderate biofilms, and shared susceptibility to cephradine and fosfomycin and resistance to spectinomycin. The most common β-lactam resistance gene was bla, followed by bla, bla-like bla-like bla and bla. Hierarchical clustering of E. coli isolates based on their phenotypic and genotypic profiles revealed separation of the majority of isolates from hatchlings and the hatchery environments, suggesting that hatchling and environmental isolates may have different origins. The high frequency of β-lactam resistance genes in AMR E. coli from chick hatchlings indicates that hatcheries may be a reservoir of AMR E. coli and can be a major contributor to the increased environmental burden of ARGs posing an eminent threat to poultry and human health.

Osman, K. M., A. M. Hessain, U. H. Abo-Shama, Z. M. Girh, S. A. Kabli, H. A. Hemeg, and I. M. Moussa, "An alternative approach for evaluating the phenotypic virulence factors of pathogenic .", Saudi journal of biological sciences, vol. 25, issue 2, pp. 195-197, 2018 Feb. Abstract

is a recognized zoonotic food-borne pathogen; however, the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the underdeveloped countries to differentiate pathogenic from non-pathogenic is a problematic issue. Our grail was to assess the phenotypic virulence markers motility, hemolysin, congo red agar, embryo lethality assay and serum resistance for pathogenic (PEC) correlated to PCR tests which is currently used world-wide to evaluate the PEC. The 448 strains of that were isolated from different sources, were characterized for phenotypic virulence factors such as motility, hemolysin, Congo red binding, Embryo Lethality assay (ELA) and serum resistance, as well as antibiotic susceptibility using disc diffusion method to 23 antibiotics Results exhibited 100% motility and Congo red binding, 97.1% for hemolysin production and 90.2% in the ELA. As a result, we were able to hypothetically conclude that the aforementioned virulence markers are plain, straightforward, economical, rapid, more dynamic, uncomplicated methodology, duplicatable and cost next to nothing when compared to the molecular PCR. Their implementation in a diagnostic microbiology laboratory for vetting is a rewarding task in the underdeveloped countries. It augments endeavors to minimize the use of PCR in our investigations especially during epidemiological and outbreak investigations of PEC.

Osman, K. M., K. S. Al-Maary, A. S. Mubarak, T. M. Dawoud, I. M. I. Moussa, M. D. S. Ibrahim, A. M. Hessain, A. Orabi, and N. M. Fawzy, "Characterization and susceptibility of streptococci and enterococci isolated from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) showing septicaemia in aquaculture and wild sites in Egypt.", BMC veterinary research, vol. 13, issue 1, pp. 357, 2017 Nov 25. Abstract

BACKGROUND: The present investigation was an endeavor into the elucidation of the disease-causing pathogen of streptococcosis in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in Egypt affecting adult fish cultured and wild fish in the Nile river. Fish were obtained from commercial fishermen, collected as part of their routine fishing activities. The researchers observed the routine fishing process and selected fish for use in the study, at the point of purchase from the fisherman.

RESULTS: Diseased fish showed exophthalmia with accumulation of purulent and haemorrhagic fluid around eyes, and ventral petechial haemorrhages. The Post mortem examination revealed, abdominal fat haemorrhage, pericarditis and enlargement of the liver, spleen and kidney. Gram-stained smears revealed the presence of Gram-positive cocci, β-hemolytic, oxidase and catalase negative. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene confirmed that the 17 tilapia isolates studied were 6/17 Enterococcus faecalis, 2/17 Enterococcus gallinarum, 3/17 Streptococcus pluranimalium, 2/17 Aerococcus viridans, 1/17 isolate of each Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus anginosus, Lactococcus garvieae and Granulicetella elegans/Leuconostoc mesenteroides cremoris. It should be noted that there was no mixed infection. Multiple resistance was observed and the most frequent antibiotic combination was penicillin, ampicillin, vancomycin, chloramphenicol, rifampicin, ofloxacin, clindamycin, erythromycin and tetracycline representing eight classes.

CONCLUSIONS: Consequently, we concluded that Streptococcus species are an emerging pathogen for Nile tilapia aquaculture in Egypt and to be considered as a new candidate in the warm water fish diseases in Egypt with special reference to L. garvieae, S. dysgalactiae in addition to L. mesenteroides cremoris which was not reported before from tilapia and taking into consideration their zoonotic implications for public health.

Osman, K., A. Alvarez-Ordóñez, L. Ruiz, J. Badr, F. ElHofy, K. S. Al-Maary, I. M. I. Moussa, A. M. Hessain, A. Orabi, A. Saad, et al., "Antimicrobial resistance and virulence characterization of Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci from imported beef meat.", Annals of clinical microbiology and antimicrobials, vol. 16, issue 1, pp. 35, 2017 May 10. Abstract

BACKGROUND: The objectives of this study were to characterize the diversity and magnitude of antimicrobial resistance among Staphylococcus species recovered from imported beef meat sold in the Egyptian market and the potential mechanisms underlying the antimicrobial resistance phenotypes including harboring of resistance genes (mecA, cfr, gyrA, gyrB, and grlA) and biofilm formation.

RESULTS: The resistance gene mecA was detected in 50% of methicillin-resistant non-Staphylococcus aureus isolates (4/8). Interestingly, our results showed that: (i) resistance genes mecA, gyrA, gyrB, grlA, and cfr were absent in Staphylococcus hominis and Staphylococcus hemolyticus isolates, although S. hominis was phenotypically resistant to methicillin (MR-non-S. aureus) while S. hemolyticus was resistant to vancomycin only; (ii) S. aureus isolates did not carry the mecA gene (100%) and were phenotypically characterized as methicillin- susceptible S. aureus (MSS); and (iii) the resistance gene mecA was present in one isolate (1/3) of Staphylococcus lugdunensis that was phenotypically characterized as methicillin-susceptible non-S. aureus (MSNSA).

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlight the potential risk for consumers, in the absence of actionable risk management information systems, of imported foods and advice a strict implementation of international standards by different venues such as CODEX to avoid the increase in prevalence of coagulase positive and coagulase negative Staphylococcus isolates and their antibiotic resistance genes in imported beef meat at the Egyptian market.

Osman, K. M., K. A. A. El-Razik, H. S. H. Marie, and A. Arafa, "COAGULASE-NEGATIVE STAPHYLOCOCCI COLLECTED FROM BOVINE MILK: SPECIES AND ANTIMICROBIAL GENE DIVERSITY", Journal of Food Safety, vol. 36, issue 1, pp. 89–99, 2016. Abstract

The aim of this study was to examine the genetically mediated antimicrobial resistance in 94 coagulase-negative staphylococcal (CNS) milk isolates (buffalo, n = 88, and cow, n = 6), and to determine whether antimicrobial resistance profiles differed between bacterial species. Our analysis of 94 CNS isolates from milk confirmed the well-established multiresistant character of staphylococci in the dairy setting. Resistance against oxacillin, ciprofloxacin and cefoxitin was most frequently observed. Eleven CNS species isolated from buffalo's and cow's milk samples were 100% sensitive to gentamicin, erythromycin, clindamycin and ciprofloxacin. Resistance to oxacillin was attributed to the mecA gene in 44.7% of the oxacillin-resistant isolates. The mecA gene was detected in Staphylococcus intermedius, epidermidis, hominis, hyicus, caprae, sciuri, lugdunensis and xylosus while totally absent in chromogenes, simulans and lentus. Of the 11 CNS species, S. epidermidis, S. lugdunensis, S. hominis, S. xylosus and S. intermedius were the only species that exhibited multiple resistance.

Osman, K. M., A. M. Amer, J. M. Badr, N. M. Helmy, R. A. Elhelw, A. Orabi, M. Bakry, and A. S., "Antimicrobial Resistance, Biofilm Formation and mecA Characterization of Methicillin-Susceptible S. aureus and Non-S. aureus of Beef Meat Origin in Egypt", Frontiers in Microbiology, vol. 7, pp. 222, 2016. Abstract

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have been found in various farm animal species throughout the world. Yet, methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), methicillin-susceptible non-S. aureus (MS-NSA), and methicillin-resistant non-S. aureus (MR-NSA) were not investigated. Therefore, we persued to determine the diversity in their phenotypic virulence assay, phenotypic antimicrobial resistance profile and molecular characterization in one of the food chains in Egypt. Samples were collected during 2013 from beef meat at retail. Twenty seven isolates comprising five species (S. hyicus, S. aureus, S. schleiferi subsp. coagulans, S. intermedius, and S. lentus) were characterized for their antibiotic resistance phenotypic profile and antibiotic resistance genes (mecA, cfr, gyrA, gyrB, and grlA). Out of the 27 Staphylococcus isolates only one isolate was resistant to the 12 antibiotics representing nine classes. Raw beef meat sold across the Great Cairo zone, contains 66.7% of MRS, with highest prevalence was reported in S. aureus (66.7%), while the MRS non-S. aureus strains constituted 66.7% from which S. hyicus (60%), S. intermedius (33.3%), S. schleiferi subsp. coagulans (100%), and S. lentus (100%) were MRS. Seven S. aureus, six S. hyicus, four S. schleiferi subsp. coagulans, three S. intermedius, and one S. lentus isolates although being resistant to oxacillin yet, 11/27 (40.7%) carried the mecA gene. At the same time, the cfr gene was present in 2 of the nine S. aureus isolates, and totally undetectable in S. hyicus, S. schleiferi subsp. coagulans, S. intermedius, and S. lentus. Although, global researches largely focused into MRSA and MR-NSA in animals on pigs, the analysis of our results stipulates, that buffaloes and cattle could be MRSA dispersers and that this theme is not specific to pigs. Detection of MSSA virulence determinants is a must, as although oxacillin resistance may be absent yet, the MSSA may carry the virulence determinants which could be a source of perilous S. aureus for the human community.

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