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el-Din, H. M., M. A. Attia, M. R. Hamza, H. M. Khaled, M. A. Thoraya, and S. A. Eisa, "Hepatitis C Virus and related changes in immunological parameters in non Hodgkin's lymphoma patients.", Egypt J Immunol, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 55-64, 2004. AbstractWebsite

{Viral hepatitis is a common and important problem in immunocompromised cancer patients. The present study was conducted to investigate changes in some cellular and humoral immunological parameters as a consequence of HCV infection in non Hodgkin's lymphoma patients (NHL). The study included 40 NHL patients: 20 anti-HCV antibody positive (Gr. I ), and 20 anti-HCV antibody negative (Gr.II ). In addition, forty non-cancer controls (NCCs) were included: 20 of them were anti-HCV antibody positive (Gr. III) and 20 anti-HCV antibody negative (Gr. IV). The studied immunological parameters included serum levels of interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors (s-TNFr) measured by ELISA, as well as assessment of T and B lymphocyte subsets by PAP immunostaining method. Mean IL-1 level (pg/ml) was significantly higher in Gr. 1 (14 +/- 6) and Gr. III (20 +/- 12) as compared to those in Gr. II (7 +/- 5) and Gr. IV (9 +/- 6). Mean IL-2 level (pg/ml) was also significantly higher in Gr. I (132 +/- 101) and Gr. III (135 +/- 59) compared to those in Gr. II (36 +/- 29) and Gr. IV (31 +/- 48). On the other hand, level of IL-6 showed no significant difference between groups. The mean level of sTNF-r, (ng/ml) was only significantly higher in Gr. I (2.9 +/- 1.7) when compared to that in Gr. IV (1.9 +/- 2.2). In group IV, the average percentage of CD3 (70 +/- 4%) and CD4 (44 +/- 5%) were significantly higher than in those of Gr. I (CD3 = 51 +/- 11%

el-Mawla, N. G., M. N. el-Bolkainy, and H. M. Khaled, "Bladder cancer in Africa: update.", Seminars in oncology, vol. 28, issue 2, pp. 174-8, 2001 Apr. Abstract

Carcinoma of the bladder is the most prevalent cancer in Egypt and in most African countries. At the National Cancer Institute (NCI), Cairo, it constitutes 30.3% of all cancers. The median age at diagnosis is 46 years, with a male preponderance of 5:1. Whether in Egypt or other African countries such as Sudan, Kenya, Uganda, Gold Coast, and Senegal, it is mostly of the squamous cell type, and arises in a background of schistosomiasis or bilharziasis. Tumors are usually advanced at the time of presentation. Bladder carcinogenesis is probably related to bacterial and human papilloma virus (HPV) infections, usually associated with bilharzial infestation. Management is mainly surgery, with 5-year survival rates after radical cystectomy increasing from 35% in the 1970s to 48% in the 1990s. The addition of adjuvant and neoadjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy to surgery since 1976 significantly improved both disease-free and overall survival rates. Molecular genetic studies concerning potential prognostic markers, tumorigenesis, and tumor progression in bilharzial bladder cancer are limited. However, a comprehensive detailed analysis of these factors is underway. Bilharzial bladder cancer is a preventable malignant disease. Primary prevention could be possible if the parasite is eliminated nationwide. Chemoprevention using retinoids or cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) inhibitors is a possible alternative. Semin Oncol 28:174-178.

el-Mawla, N. G., M. N. el-Bolkainy, and H. M. Khaled, "Bladder cancer in Africa: update.", Seminars in oncology, vol. 28, issue 2, pp. 174-8, 2001 Apr. Abstract

Carcinoma of the bladder is the most prevalent cancer in Egypt and in most African countries. At the National Cancer Institute (NCI), Cairo, it constitutes 30.3% of all cancers. The median age at diagnosis is 46 years, with a male preponderance of 5:1. Whether in Egypt or other African countries such as Sudan, Kenya, Uganda, Gold Coast, and Senegal, it is mostly of the squamous cell type, and arises in a background of schistosomiasis or bilharziasis. Tumors are usually advanced at the time of presentation. Bladder carcinogenesis is probably related to bacterial and human papilloma virus (HPV) infections, usually associated with bilharzial infestation. Management is mainly surgery, with 5-year survival rates after radical cystectomy increasing from 35% in the 1970s to 48% in the 1990s. The addition of adjuvant and neoadjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy to surgery since 1976 significantly improved both disease-free and overall survival rates. Molecular genetic studies concerning potential prognostic markers, tumorigenesis, and tumor progression in bilharzial bladder cancer are limited. However, a comprehensive detailed analysis of these factors is underway. Bilharzial bladder cancer is a preventable malignant disease. Primary prevention could be possible if the parasite is eliminated nationwide. Chemoprevention using retinoids or cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) inhibitors is a possible alternative. Semin Oncol 28:174-178.

el-Din, H. M., M. A. Attia, M. R. Hamza, H. M. Khaled, M. A. Thoraya, and S. A. Eisa, "Hepatitis C Virus and related changes in immunological parameters in non Hodgkin's lymphoma patients.", Egypt J Immunol, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 55-64, 2004. AbstractWebsite

{Viral hepatitis is a common and important problem in immunocompromised cancer patients. The present study was conducted to investigate changes in some cellular and humoral immunological parameters as a consequence of HCV infection in non Hodgkin's lymphoma patients (NHL). The study included 40 NHL patients: 20 anti-HCV antibody positive (Gr. I ), and 20 anti-HCV antibody negative (Gr.II ). In addition, forty non-cancer controls (NCCs) were included: 20 of them were anti-HCV antibody positive (Gr. III) and 20 anti-HCV antibody negative (Gr. IV). The studied immunological parameters included serum levels of interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors (s-TNFr) measured by ELISA, as well as assessment of T and B lymphocyte subsets by PAP immunostaining method. Mean IL-1 level (pg/ml) was significantly higher in Gr. 1 (14 +/- 6) and Gr. III (20 +/- 12) as compared to those in Gr. II (7 +/- 5) and Gr. IV (9 +/- 6). Mean IL-2 level (pg/ml) was also significantly higher in Gr. I (132 +/- 101) and Gr. III (135 +/- 59) compared to those in Gr. II (36 +/- 29) and Gr. IV (31 +/- 48). On the other hand, level of IL-6 showed no significant difference between groups. The mean level of sTNF-r, (ng/ml) was only significantly higher in Gr. I (2.9 +/- 1.7) when compared to that in Gr. IV (1.9 +/- 2.2). In group IV, the average percentage of CD3 (70 +/- 4%) and CD4 (44 +/- 5%) were significantly higher than in those of Gr. I (CD3 = 51 +/- 11%

A
Abdel Aziz, M. T. a, H. M. b Khaled, A. c El Hindawi, N. K. a Roshdy, L. A. a Rashed, D. A. Sabry, A. A. a Hassouna, F. a Taha, and W. I. a Ali, "Effect of mesenchymal stem cells and a novel curcumin derivative on notch1 signaling in hepatoma cell line", BioMed Research International, vol. 2013, 2013. AbstractWebsite

This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and a novel curcumin derivative (NCD) on HepG2 cells (hepatoma cell line) and to investigate their effect on Notch1 signaling pathway target genes. HepG2 cells were divided into HepG2 control group, HepG2 cells treated with MSC conditioned medium (MSCs CM), HepG2 cells treated with a NCD, HepG2 cells treated with MSCs CM and NCD, and HepG2 cells treated with MSCs CM (CM of MSCs pretreated with a NCD). Expression of Notch1, Hes1, VEGF, and cyclin D1 was assessed by real-time, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in HepG2 cells. In addition, HepG2 proliferation assay was performed in all groups. Notch1 and its target genes (Hes1 and cyclin D1) were downregulated in all treated groups with more suppressive effect in the groups treated with both MSCs and NCD. Also, treated HepG2 cells showed significant decrease in cell proliferation rate. These data suggest that modulation of Notch1 signaling pathway by MSCs and/or NCD can be considered as a therapeutic target in HCC. © 2013 Mohamed Talaat Abdel Aziz et al.

Abdel-Rahman, S. Z. a, A. S. b Soliman, M. L. b Bondy, S. c Omar, S. A. c El-Badawy, H. M. c Khaled, I. A. d Seifeldin, and B. b Levin, "Inheritance of the 194Trp and the 399Gln variant alleles of the DNA repair gene XRCC1 are associated with increased risk of early-onset colorectal carcinoma in Egypt", Cancer Letters, vol. 159, no. 1, pp. 79-86, 2000. AbstractWebsite

Patients under age 40 constitute 35.6% of all colorectal cancer cases in Egypt, an unusual disease pattern to which both environmental exposures and inefficient DNA repair may contribute. While a number of polymorphisms in DNA repair genes have been recently identified, their role as cancer risk modifiers is yet to be determined. In a pilot case-control study, we tested the hypothesis that polymorphisms in the gene for the DNA repair enzyme XRCC1 are associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer among Egyptians. Using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) methodology, allelic variants of the XRCC1 gene at codons 194 (Arg → Trp) (194Trp) and 399 (Arg → Gln) (399Gln), were analyzed in DNA from lymphocytes of 48 newly-diagnosed colorectal cancer cases and 48 age- and sex-matched controls. Overall, the inheritance of 194Trp allele (Arg/Trp genotype) and 399Gln allele (combined Arg/Gln and Gln/Gln genotypes) was associated with increased colorectal cancer risk (odds ratio (OR) = 2.56, 95% confidence limits (CL) 0.73-9.40, and P = 0.08 for 194Trp allele and OR = 3.98, 95% CL 1.50-10.6, and P < 0.001 for 399Gln allele). Interestingly, the frequencies of 194Trp and 399Gln genotypes were higher in colorectal cancer cases under age 40 than in corresponding controls, and an association between both polymorphisms and early age of disease onset was observed (OR = 3.33, 95% CL 0.48-35.90, and P = 0.16 for 194Trp and OR = 11.90, 95% CL 2.30-51.50, and P = 0.0003 for 399Gln). Analysis of the data after adjustment for place of residence indicated that the frequencies of the genotypes with the 194Trp and the 399Gln alleles were higher among urban residents (OR = 3.33, 95% CL 0.48-35.90, and P = 0.16 for 194Trp and OR = 9.97, 95% CL 1.98-43.76, and P < 0.001 for 399Gln) than among rural residents (OR = 2.00, 95% CL 0.36-26.00, and P = 0.30 for 194Trp and OR = 1.90, 95% CL 0.50-7.53, and P = 0.20 for 399Gln). These findings support our hypothesis and suggest that polymorphisms in the XRCC1 gene, in conjunction with place of residence, may modify disease risk. This first demonstration that polymorphisms in DNA repair genes may contribute to colorectal cancer susceptibility and may increase the risk of early onset of the disease opens the door for future studies in that direction. (C) 2000 Published by Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd.

Abdel-Rahman, S. Z. a, A. S. b Soliman, M. L. b Bondy, S. c Omar, S. A. c El-Badawy, H. M. c Khaled, I. A. d Seifeldin, and B. b Levin, "Inheritance of the 194Trp and the 399Gln variant alleles of the DNA repair gene XRCC1 are associated with increased risk of early-onset colorectal carcinoma in Egypt", Cancer Letters, vol. 159, no. 1, pp. 79-86, 2000. AbstractWebsite

Patients under age 40 constitute 35.6% of all colorectal cancer cases in Egypt, an unusual disease pattern to which both environmental exposures and inefficient DNA repair may contribute. While a number of polymorphisms in DNA repair genes have been recently identified, their role as cancer risk modifiers is yet to be determined. In a pilot case-control study, we tested the hypothesis that polymorphisms in the gene for the DNA repair enzyme XRCC1 are associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer among Egyptians. Using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) methodology, allelic variants of the XRCC1 gene at codons 194 (Arg → Trp) (194Trp) and 399 (Arg → Gln) (399Gln), were analyzed in DNA from lymphocytes of 48 newly-diagnosed colorectal cancer cases and 48 age- and sex-matched controls. Overall, the inheritance of 194Trp allele (Arg/Trp genotype) and 399Gln allele (combined Arg/Gln and Gln/Gln genotypes) was associated with increased colorectal cancer risk (odds ratio (OR) = 2.56, 95% confidence limits (CL) 0.73-9.40, and P = 0.08 for 194Trp allele and OR = 3.98, 95% CL 1.50-10.6, and P < 0.001 for 399Gln allele). Interestingly, the frequencies of 194Trp and 399Gln genotypes were higher in colorectal cancer cases under age 40 than in corresponding controls, and an association between both polymorphisms and early age of disease onset was observed (OR = 3.33, 95% CL 0.48-35.90, and P = 0.16 for 194Trp and OR = 11.90, 95% CL 2.30-51.50, and P = 0.0003 for 399Gln). Analysis of the data after adjustment for place of residence indicated that the frequencies of the genotypes with the 194Trp and the 399Gln alleles were higher among urban residents (OR = 3.33, 95% CL 0.48-35.90, and P = 0.16 for 194Trp and OR = 9.97, 95% CL 1.98-43.76, and P < 0.001 for 399Gln) than among rural residents (OR = 2.00, 95% CL 0.36-26.00, and P = 0.30 for 194Trp and OR = 1.90, 95% CL 0.50-7.53, and P = 0.20 for 399Gln). These findings support our hypothesis and suggest that polymorphisms in the XRCC1 gene, in conjunction with place of residence, may modify disease risk. This first demonstration that polymorphisms in DNA repair genes may contribute to colorectal cancer susceptibility and may increase the risk of early onset of the disease opens the door for future studies in that direction. (C) 2000 Published by Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd.

Abdel-Rahman, S. Z., A. S. Soliman, M. L. Bondy, S. Omar, S. A. El-Badawy, H. M. Khaled, I. A. Seifeldin, and B. Levin, "Inheritance of the 194Trp and the 399Gln variant alleles of the DNA repair gene XRCC1 are associated with increased risk of early-onset colorectal carcinoma in Egypt.", Cancer letters, vol. 159, issue 1, pp. 79-86, 2000 Oct 16. Abstract

Patients under age 40 constitute 35.6% of all colorectal cancer cases in Egypt, an unusual disease pattern to which both environmental exposures and inefficient DNA repair may contribute. While a number of polymorphisms in DNA repair genes have been recently identified, their role as cancer risk modifiers is yet to be determined. In a pilot case-control study, we tested the hypothesis that polymorphisms in the gene for the DNA repair enzyme XRCC1 are associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer among Egyptians. Using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) methodology, allelic variants of the XRCC1 gene at codons 194 (Arg-->Trp) (194Trp) and 399 (Arg-->Gln) (399Gln), were analyzed in DNA from lymphocytes of 48 newly-diagnosed colorectal cancer cases and 48 age- and sex-matched controls. Overall, the inheritance of 194Trp allele (Arg/Trp genotype) and 399Gln allele (combined Arg/Gln and Gln/Gln genotypes) was associated with increased colorectal cancer risk (odds ratio (OR)=2.56, 95% confidence limits (CL) 0.73-9.40, and P=0. 08 for 194Trp allele and OR=3.98, 95% CL 1.50-10.6, and P<0.001 for 399Gln allele). Interestingly, the frequencies of 194Trp and 399Gln genotypes were higher in colorectal cancer cases under age 40 than in corresponding controls, and an association between both polymorphisms and early age of disease onset was observed (OR=3.33, 95% CL 0.48-35.90, and P=0.16 for 194Trp and OR=11.90, 95% CL 2.30-51.50, and P=0.0003 for 399Gln). Analysis of the data after adjustment for place of residence indicated that the frequencies of the genotypes with the 194Trp and the 399Gln alleles were higher among urban residents (OR=3.33, 95% CL 0.48-35.90, and P=0.16 for 194Trp and OR=9.97, 95% CL 1.98-43.76, and P<0.001 for 399Gln) than among rural residents (OR=2.00, 95% CL 0.36-26.00, and P=0.30 for 194Trp and OR=1.90, 95% CL 0.50-7.53, and P=0.20 for 399Gln). These findings support our hypothesis and suggest that polymorphisms in the XRCC1 gene, in conjunction with place of residence, may modify disease risk. This first demonstration that polymorphisms in DNA repair genes may contribute to colorectal cancer susceptibility and may increase the risk of early onset of the disease opens the door for future studies in that direction.

Abdel-Rahman, S. Z., A. S. Soliman, M. L. Bondy, S. Omar, S. A. El-Badawy, H. M. Khaled, I. A. Seifeldin, and B. Levin, "Inheritance of the 194Trp and the 399Gln variant alleles of the DNA repair gene XRCC1 are associated with increased risk of early-onset colorectal carcinoma in Egypt.", Cancer letters, vol. 159, issue 1, pp. 79-86, 2000 Oct 16. Abstract

Patients under age 40 constitute 35.6% of all colorectal cancer cases in Egypt, an unusual disease pattern to which both environmental exposures and inefficient DNA repair may contribute. While a number of polymorphisms in DNA repair genes have been recently identified, their role as cancer risk modifiers is yet to be determined. In a pilot case-control study, we tested the hypothesis that polymorphisms in the gene for the DNA repair enzyme XRCC1 are associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer among Egyptians. Using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) methodology, allelic variants of the XRCC1 gene at codons 194 (Arg-->Trp) (194Trp) and 399 (Arg-->Gln) (399Gln), were analyzed in DNA from lymphocytes of 48 newly-diagnosed colorectal cancer cases and 48 age- and sex-matched controls. Overall, the inheritance of 194Trp allele (Arg/Trp genotype) and 399Gln allele (combined Arg/Gln and Gln/Gln genotypes) was associated with increased colorectal cancer risk (odds ratio (OR)=2.56, 95% confidence limits (CL) 0.73-9.40, and P=0. 08 for 194Trp allele and OR=3.98, 95% CL 1.50-10.6, and P<0.001 for 399Gln allele). Interestingly, the frequencies of 194Trp and 399Gln genotypes were higher in colorectal cancer cases under age 40 than in corresponding controls, and an association between both polymorphisms and early age of disease onset was observed (OR=3.33, 95% CL 0.48-35.90, and P=0.16 for 194Trp and OR=11.90, 95% CL 2.30-51.50, and P=0.0003 for 399Gln). Analysis of the data after adjustment for place of residence indicated that the frequencies of the genotypes with the 194Trp and the 399Gln alleles were higher among urban residents (OR=3.33, 95% CL 0.48-35.90, and P=0.16 for 194Trp and OR=9.97, 95% CL 1.98-43.76, and P<0.001 for 399Gln) than among rural residents (OR=2.00, 95% CL 0.36-26.00, and P=0.30 for 194Trp and OR=1.90, 95% CL 0.50-7.53, and P=0.20 for 399Gln). These findings support our hypothesis and suggest that polymorphisms in the XRCC1 gene, in conjunction with place of residence, may modify disease risk. This first demonstration that polymorphisms in DNA repair genes may contribute to colorectal cancer susceptibility and may increase the risk of early onset of the disease opens the door for future studies in that direction.

Abdel-Salam, I. M. a, H. M. a Khaled, H. E. b Gaballah, O. M. b Mansour, H. A. A. c Kassem, and A. M. a Metwaly, "Telomerase activity in bilharzial bladder cancer: Prognostic implications", Urologic Oncology, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 149-153, 2001. AbstractWebsite

{Background: Bladder cancer is a common malignancy in Egypt and other developing countries in which infection with Schistosoma haematobium is prevalent. Bladder cancer caused by bilharziasis has different clinical and biological characters than that observed in the western world. In this study, we used the TRAP technique to estimate telomerase activity in bilharzial bladder cancer specimens and we correlated the findings with other clinical and pathological findings. Patients and methods: Bladder cancer specimens were obtained from 57 patients who underwent radical cystectomy and pathological diagnosis was obtained in all patients. Tissue samples were frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at -80°C. Telomerase activity by PCR-ELISA technique was measured using TRAP technique. Results: Our patient group included 45 males and 12 females with a median age of 49 years. The majority of our patients (35/57) have squamous histology and they have proven bilharzial history shown in the pathology specimens. Stage P3b was encountered in 29/57 patients whereas thirty-five patients have grade II tumors. The majority of our patients (41/57) were negative for pelvic nodes metastases. Telomerase activity was detected in 27/57 patients (47.4%). The mean level of telomerase was 0.85±0.77 in positive patients and 0.029±0.025 in negative patients. The expression of telomerase and its mean level in patients above age of 60, in males and in those with squamous pathology, higher grade of tumors or positive node was higher than those without but the difference did not reach statistical significance (P>0.05). Alternatively, expression was significantly higher in those with stages (P1-P3a) compared with P3b-P4a disease stages (66.6% vs. 37.1

Abdel-Salam, I. M., H. M. Khaled, H. E. Gaballah, O. M. Mansour, H. A. A. Kassem, and A. M. Metwaly, "Telomerase activity in bilharzial bladder cancer. Prognostic implications.", Urologic oncology, vol. 6, issue 4, pp. 149-153, 2001 Jul. Abstract

Background: Bladder cancer is a common malignancy in Egypt and other developing countries in which infection with Schistosoma haematobium is prevalent. Bladder cancer caused by bilharziasis has different clinical and biological characters than that observed in the western world. In this study, we used the TRAP technique to estimate telomerase activity in bilharzial bladder cancer specimens and we correlated the findings with other clinical and pathological findings. Patients and methods: Bladder cancer specimens were obtained from 57 patients who underwent radical cystectomy and pathological diagnosis was obtained in all patients. Tissue samples were frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at -80 degrees C. Telomerase activity by PCR-ELISA technique was measured using TRAP technique. Results: Our patient group included 45 males and 12 females with a median age of 49 years. The majority of our patients (35/57) have squamous histology and they have proven bilharzial history shown in the pathology specimens. Stage P3b was encountered in 29/57 patients whereas thirty-five patients have grade II tumors. The majority of our patients (41/57) were negative for pelvic nodes metastases. Telomerase activity was detected in 27/57 patients (47.4%). The mean level of telomerase was 0.85+/-0.77 in positive patients and 0.029+/-0.025 in negative patients. The expression of telomerase and its mean level in patients above age of 60, in males and in those with squamous pathology, higher grade of tumors or positive node was higher than those without but the difference did not reach statistical significance (P>0.05). Alternatively, expression was significantly higher in those with stages (P1-P3a) compared with P3b-P4a disease stages (66.6% vs. 37.1, P=0.03). Conclusion: Telomerase activity is increased in bilharzial bladder cancer although to a lesser degree than that reported for TCC in the western world, which could be explained, by different biological behavior or different assay methods. Further larger studies with more number of patients are still needed to determine its potential value for early detection and possible use as a therapeutic target.

Abdel-Salam, I. M., H. M. Khaled, H. E. Gaballah, O. M. Mansour, H. A. A. Kassem, and A. M. Metwaly, "Telomerase activity in bilharzial bladder cancer. Prognostic implications.", Urologic oncology, vol. 6, issue 4, pp. 149-153, 2001 Jul. Abstract

Background: Bladder cancer is a common malignancy in Egypt and other developing countries in which infection with Schistosoma haematobium is prevalent. Bladder cancer caused by bilharziasis has different clinical and biological characters than that observed in the western world. In this study, we used the TRAP technique to estimate telomerase activity in bilharzial bladder cancer specimens and we correlated the findings with other clinical and pathological findings. Patients and methods: Bladder cancer specimens were obtained from 57 patients who underwent radical cystectomy and pathological diagnosis was obtained in all patients. Tissue samples were frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at -80 degrees C. Telomerase activity by PCR-ELISA technique was measured using TRAP technique. Results: Our patient group included 45 males and 12 females with a median age of 49 years. The majority of our patients (35/57) have squamous histology and they have proven bilharzial history shown in the pathology specimens. Stage P3b was encountered in 29/57 patients whereas thirty-five patients have grade II tumors. The majority of our patients (41/57) were negative for pelvic nodes metastases. Telomerase activity was detected in 27/57 patients (47.4%). The mean level of telomerase was 0.85+/-0.77 in positive patients and 0.029+/-0.025 in negative patients. The expression of telomerase and its mean level in patients above age of 60, in males and in those with squamous pathology, higher grade of tumors or positive node was higher than those without but the difference did not reach statistical significance (P>0.05). Alternatively, expression was significantly higher in those with stages (P1-P3a) compared with P3b-P4a disease stages (66.6% vs. 37.1, P=0.03). Conclusion: Telomerase activity is increased in bilharzial bladder cancer although to a lesser degree than that reported for TCC in the western world, which could be explained, by different biological behavior or different assay methods. Further larger studies with more number of patients are still needed to determine its potential value for early detection and possible use as a therapeutic target.

Abed, A. M., and H. M. Khaled, "Distribution of uranium in the Jordan phosphates.", Dirasat, vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 91-103, 1985. AbstractWebsite

Some 95 samples representing the phosphates of Jordan were taken from Esh-Shidiya, Hasa, Mujib, Qastal, Ariesh, Rusiefa and North Jordan phosphates. They were analysed for U, P and Ca. The U contents are found to increase towards Ruseifa in the N. The U3O8/P2O5 ratio is a better indicator for U distribution than the absolute values of U. This study indicates that each locality has its characteristic ratio, and the mean ratio for each locality increases towards N Jordan. Thus, while Esh-Shidiya has 2.8 ppm U for each 1% P2O5, Rusiefa has 5.39 ppm U for each 1% P2O5. It is ths recommended that if the fertilizer industry is going to utilize U from the Jordan phosphate they should use the N Jordan deposits (ie Qastal, Rusiefa, Samu) and not Esh-Shidiya phosphate.-Authors

Ahmed, O. S. a, M. B. b Mohamed, A. - R. N. a Zekri, H. b Imam, H. M. a Khaled, and M. H. b c Abdel-Kader, "Synthesis of the newly developed core-shell Au/Fe3O4 magnato-plasmonic nanocomposite in cancer cells", Life Science Journal, vol. 11, no. 10: Zhengzhou University, pp. 182-187, 2014. AbstractWebsite

Background: Fe3O4-gold-Polyethyleneimine core-shell nanostructure can be used in biotechnological and biomedical applications.This research was conducted to assess the biocompatibility of the core-shell Fe3O4@Au nanocomposite, which have potential application in biomedical imaging. Results: Magnetite nanoparticles with an average size of 14 nm in diameter were synthesized using the chemical co-precipitation method. A gold-coated Fe3O4 monotonous core-shell nanostructure was produced with an average size of 21 nm in diameter by PEI reduction of Au3+. The results of analyses with electron diffraction, particle size, zeta potential,Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM),) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) indicated that the nanoparticles were regularly shaped, and agglomerate-free, with a narrow size distribution. We use the Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) as a promising non-destructive technique for the spectral analysis of Gold - coated magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4). The biocompatibility of the obtained NPs, at concentration, was evaluated via MTT(3-(4,5- dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide) assay and the results showed that the NPs were non-toxic at concentrations 50μg /mL. Conclusions: A rapid, mild method for synthesizing Fe3O4-gold nanoparticles using Polyethyleneimine was investigated. A magnetic gold core-shell- Polyethyleneimine nanocomposite, including both the supermagnetic properties of iron oxide and the optical characteristics of colloidal gold nanoparticles, was synthesized.

Aly, M. S. a, and H. M. b Khaled, "Chromosomal aberrations in early-stage bilharzial bladder cancer", Cancer Genetics and Cytogenetics, vol. 132, no. 1, pp. 41-45, 2002. AbstractWebsite

Bilharzial bladder cancer is one of the most common types of malignancy in both men and women in several developing countries including Egypt. It has several unique clinical, epidemiological, and histological characteristics, suggesting that it is an entity distinct from bladder cancer seen in Western countries. Genetic alterations in bilharzial-related bladder cancer have been studied infrequently, especially in the advanced stages of disease, that is, T3 and T4 classifications. The objective of this study was to extend establishing the baseline cytogenetic profile of this type of malignancy to early T1 and T2 classifications. For this purpose, fluorescence in situ hybridization was applied to interphase nuclei of frozen-stored samples with biotinylated repetitive DNA probes specific for all chromosomes to detect numerical chromosome changes in 35 patients presenting with relatively early-stage pT1 and pT2 disease. Eleven cases had squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and 24 had transitional cell carcinoma. Six of 24 transitional cell carcinomas had diploid chromosome counts with all the probes. Numerical chromosome aberrations were detected in 18 cases (75%). In 12 cases, a loss of chromosome 9 was observed. In three cases, an additional loss of chromosome 17 was detected. One case demonstrated a loss of chromosome 10, whereas another two cases showed a gain of chromosome 7, next to a loss of chromosome 9. Loss of chromosome Y was observed in nine of the 27 male cases studied (33.3%), in which only one case showed an abnormality whereas four cases were detected next to loss of chromosome 9, and one case showed gain of chromosome 7. Five cases showed loss of chromosome 19 whereas gain of chromosome 4 was detected in two cases. Two of 11 samples of SCC had normal diploid chromosome counts with all the probes used. In four of 11 cases (36.4%) underrepresentation of chromosome 9, compared with the other chromosomes, was detected. An additional loss of chromosome 17 and gain of chromosome 7, next to loss of chromosome 9, was detected in three cases. One case showed loss of chromosome 17 as the only numerical aberration. Loss of the Y chromosome was detected in three cases of which one case had gain of chromosome 7 and one case had loss of chromosome 19. No correlation was found between any of the clinicopathologic parameters examined in this study and the presence or absence of any numerical chromosomal aberrations except for the significant association between schistosomal history and loss of Y chromosome (P=0.007). © 2002 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.

b Aly, M. S. a, H. M. c Khaled, M. c Emara, and T. D. d Hussein, "Cytogenetic profile of locally advanced and metastatic schistosoma-related bladder cancer and response to chemotherapy", Cancer Genetics, vol. 205, no. 4, pp. 156-162, 2012. AbstractWebsite

Bladder cancer is a common malignancy in developing countries in which bladder infection with the parasite Schistosoma haematobium is prevalent. Several epidemiological, histopathological, and clinical characteristics of schistosoma-associated bladder cancer suggest that it is distinct from bladder cancer seen in other places in the world. The aim of this study was to extend establishing the cytogenetic profile of this type of malignancy in advanced and metastatic cases, and to demonstrate its relation to the end results of systemic therapy. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was applied to interphase nuclei to detect numerical chromosome changes in 41 patients with bladder cancer. Numerical chromosome aberrations were detected in 27 of 41 cases (66%). In 17 (41%) cases, a gain of chromosome 7 was observed, while losses in chromosomes 9 and 17 were detected in 20 (49%) and 18 (44%) cases, respectively. Loss of chromosome Y was detected in 7 of the 32 male patients included in this study (22%). There was a statistically significant association between stage of the disease and overall survival; Bajorin score and time to disease progression and overall survival; and between response to systemic therapy and time to disease progression and overall survival. The only chromosomal abnormality that had a significant relationship with overall survival was the gain of chromosome 4. When the genetic basis of schistosoma-associated bladder cancer is fully understood, new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies could be developed, which in turn may promote better clinical management and survival. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Aly, M. S., and H. M. Khaled, "Chromosomal aberrations in Bilharzial bladder cancer as detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization.", Cancer genetics and cytogenetics, vol. 114, issue 1, pp. 62-7, 1999 Oct 1. Abstract

Cancer of the bladder is a frequent malignancy in Egypt and other developing countries in which bladder infection with the parasite Schistosoma haematobium is common. Several epidemiological, histopathological, and clinical characteristics of cancer of the Bilharzial bladder suggest that it is distinct from bladder cancer seen in other places in the world. No numerical aberrations of chromosomes that might be specific for Bilharzial bladder carcinoma have been established. In this study, we used fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with centromere-specific probes for chromosomes 3, 4, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 16, and 17 to detect numerical aberrations of these chromosomes in frozen-stored samples of 31 Egyptian patients affected with Bilharzial carcinoma. Among 5 types of chromosomes examined, imbalance was observed; the most common imbalance was a loss of chromosome 9 (48.4%), with numerical aberration of chromosome 17 being the second most-frequent anomaly (19.4%). The presence of such anomalies, especially losses of chromosome 9, are associated with a younger age group of patients, as well as with a lower grade tumor and negative pelvic node involvement by the disease. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis thus proved to be a useful method for detecting numerical aberrations of individual chromosomes, with application to touch preparations of frozen-stored tissue having the advantage of exact sampling of cancer foci. This result also suggests that the mechanism of genetic progression of bladder cancer is independent of its etiology.

Aly, M. S. a, and H. M. b Khaled, "Detection of C-erb B2 gene amplification in bilharzial associated bladder cancer using fluorescence in situ hybridization", Urologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 448-452, 2004. AbstractWebsite

Background: Gene amplifications are common events in different tumor types and may confer diagnostic, prognostic, or therapeutic information for patient management. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) represents a standard methodologic approach for testing for this genetic alteration, as it is rapid, reproducible and extremely reliable in detecting presence of C-erb-B2 gene amplification for clinical utility. Patients and Methods: In this study, FISH is used in a series of archival human bilharzial bladder cancer specimens to evaluate for the presence of cerbB-2 gene alterations in the most common malignant tumor in bilharzial endemic areas, e.g., Egypt and some other countries. The study included 40 cases, 30 males and 10 females. Their ages ranged between 30 years and 76 years (median: 51 years). Twenty-one cases had squamous cell carcinoma, 16 had transitional cell carcinoma, two had adenocarcinoma, and one case had undifferentiated carcinoma. Results: Thirteen out of 40 tumor samples (32.5%) show evidence of true C-erb-B2 gene amplification. Of the remaining samples, 24 (60%) show no gene amplification and three (7.5%) fall into the borderline category with a ratio between one and two C-erb-B2 genes/cell relative to chromosome 17 centromeres. No evidence of chromosome 17 polysomy was found in any cases scored as single copy with the C-erb-B2 probe. Conclusion: No significant association was found between gene amplification and any of the tested clinicopathologic parameters or tumor recurrence except for tumor grade where higher tumor grades tended to be associated with more C-erb-B2 gene amplification (P = 0.01) thus reflecting more tumor aggressiveness. So, the amplification of C-erb-B2 in bilharzial associated bladder cancer is probably not independently related to clinical outcome of patients. © 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Aly, M. S., and H. M. Khaled, "Detection of C-erb B2 gene amplification in bilharzial associated bladder cancer using fluorescence in situ hybridization.", Urologic oncology, vol. 22, issue 6, pp. 448-52, 2004 Nov-Dec. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Gene amplifications are common events in different tumor types and may confer diagnostic, prognostic, or therapeutic information for patient management. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) represents a standard methodologic approach for testing for this genetic alteration, as it is rapid, reproducible and extremely reliable in detecting presence of C-erb-B2 gene amplification for clinical utility.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this study, FISH is used in a series of archival human bilharzial bladder cancer specimens to evaluate for the presence of cerbB-2 gene alterations in the most common malignant tumor in bilharzial endemic areas, e.g., Egypt and some other countries. The study included 40 cases, 30 males and 10 females. Their ages ranged between 30 years and 76 years (median: 51 years). Twenty-one cases had squamous cell carcinoma, 16 had transitional cell carcinoma, two had adenocarcinoma, and one case had undifferentiated carcinoma.

RESULTS: Thirteen out of 40 tumor samples (32.5%) show evidence of true C-erb-B2 gene amplification. Of the remaining samples, 24 (60%) show no gene amplification and three (7.5%) fall into the borderline category with a ratio between one and two C-erb-B2 genes/cell relative to chromosome 17 centromeres. No evidence of chromosome 17 polysomy was found in any cases scored as single copy with the C-erb-B2 probe.

CONCLUSION: No significant association was found between gene amplification and any of the tested clinicopathologic parameters or tumor recurrence except for tumor grade where higher tumor grades tended to be associated with more C-erb-B2 gene amplification (P = 0.01) thus reflecting more tumor aggressiveness. So, the amplification of C-erb-B2 in bilharzial associated bladder cancer is probably not independently related to clinical outcome of patients.

Aly, M. S. a, and H. M. b Khaled, "Detection of C-erb B2 gene amplification in bilharzial associated bladder cancer using fluorescence in situ hybridization", Urologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 448-452, 2004. AbstractWebsite

Background: Gene amplifications are common events in different tumor types and may confer diagnostic, prognostic, or therapeutic information for patient management. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) represents a standard methodologic approach for testing for this genetic alteration, as it is rapid, reproducible and extremely reliable in detecting presence of C-erb-B2 gene amplification for clinical utility. Patients and Methods: In this study, FISH is used in a series of archival human bilharzial bladder cancer specimens to evaluate for the presence of cerbB-2 gene alterations in the most common malignant tumor in bilharzial endemic areas, e.g., Egypt and some other countries. The study included 40 cases, 30 males and 10 females. Their ages ranged between 30 years and 76 years (median: 51 years). Twenty-one cases had squamous cell carcinoma, 16 had transitional cell carcinoma, two had adenocarcinoma, and one case had undifferentiated carcinoma. Results: Thirteen out of 40 tumor samples (32.5%) show evidence of true C-erb-B2 gene amplification. Of the remaining samples, 24 (60%) show no gene amplification and three (7.5%) fall into the borderline category with a ratio between one and two C-erb-B2 genes/cell relative to chromosome 17 centromeres. No evidence of chromosome 17 polysomy was found in any cases scored as single copy with the C-erb-B2 probe. Conclusion: No significant association was found between gene amplification and any of the tested clinicopathologic parameters or tumor recurrence except for tumor grade where higher tumor grades tended to be associated with more C-erb-B2 gene amplification (P = 0.01) thus reflecting more tumor aggressiveness. So, the amplification of C-erb-B2 in bilharzial associated bladder cancer is probably not independently related to clinical outcome of patients. © 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Aly, M. S., H. M. Khaled, M. Emara, and T. D. Hussein, "Cytogenetic profile of locally advanced and metastatic Schistosoma-related bladder cancer and response to chemotherapy.", Cancer genetics, vol. 205, issue 4, pp. 156-62, 2012 Apr. Abstract

Bladder cancer is a common malignancy in developing countries in which bladder infection with the parasite Schistosoma haematobium is prevalent. Several epidemiological, histopathological, and clinical characteristics of schistosoma-associated bladder cancer suggest that it is distinct from bladder cancer seen in other places in the world. The aim of this study was to extend establishing the cytogenetic profile of this type of malignancy in advanced and metastatic cases, and to demonstrate its relation to the end results of systemic therapy. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was applied to interphase nuclei to detect numerical chromosome changes in 41 patients with bladder cancer. Numerical chromosome aberrations were detected in 27 of 41 cases (66%). In 17 (41%) cases, a gain of chromosome 7 was observed, while losses in chromosomes 9 and 17 were detected in 20 (49%) and 18 (44%) cases, respectively. Loss of chromosome Y was detected in 7 of the 32 male patients included in this study (22%). There was a statistically significant association between stage of the disease and overall survival; Bajorin score and time to disease progression and overall survival; and between response to systemic therapy and time to disease progression and overall survival. The only chromosomal abnormality that had a significant relationship with overall survival was the gain of chromosome 4. When the genetic basis of schistosoma-associated bladder cancer is fully understood, new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies could be developed, which in turn may promote better clinical management and survival.

Aly, M. S., and H. M. Khaled, "Chromosomal aberrations in early-stage bilharzial bladder cancer.", Cancer genetics and cytogenetics, vol. 132, issue 1, pp. 41-5, 2002 Jan 1. Abstract

Bilharzial bladder cancer is one of the most common types of malignancy in both men and women in several developing countries including Egypt. It has several unique clinical, epidemiological, and histological characteristics, suggesting that it is an entity distinct from bladder cancer seen in Western countries. Genetic alterations in bilharzial-related bladder cancer have been studied infrequently, especially in the advanced stages of disease, that is, T3 and T4 classifications. The objective of this study was to extend establishing the baseline cytogenetic profile of this type of malignancy to early T1 and T2 classifications. For this purpose, fluorescence in situ hybridization was applied to interphase nuclei of frozen-stored samples with biotinylated repetitive DNA probes specific for all chromosomes to detect numerical chromosome changes in 35 patients presenting with relatively early-stage pT1 and pT2 disease. Eleven cases had squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and 24 had transitional cell carcinoma. Six of 24 transitional cell carcinomas had diploid chromosome counts with all the probes. Numerical chromosome aberrations were detected in 18 cases (75%). In 12 cases, a loss of chromosome 9 was observed. In three cases, an additional loss of chromosome 17 was detected. One case demonstrated a loss of chromosome 10, whereas another two cases showed a gain of chromosome 7, next to a loss of chromosome 9. Loss of chromosome Y was observed in nine of the 27 male cases studied (33.3%), in which only one case showed an abnormality whereas four cases were detected next to loss of chromosome 9, and one case showed gain of chromosome 7. Five cases showed loss of chromosome 19 whereas gain of chromosome 4 was detected in two cases. Two of 11 samples of SCC had normal diploid chromosome counts with all the probes used. In four of 11 cases (36.4%) underrepresentation of chromosome 9, compared with the other chromosomes, was detected. An additional loss of chromosome 17 and gain of chromosome 7, next to loss of chromosome 9, was detected in three cases. One case showed loss of chromosome 17 as the only numerical aberration. Loss of the Y chromosome was detected in three cases of which one case had gain of chromosome 7 and one case had loss of chromosome 19. No correlation was found between any of the clinicopathologic parameters examined in this study and the presence or absence of any numerical chromosomal aberrations except for the significant association between schistosomal history and loss of Y chromosome (P=0.007).

Aly, M. S., and H. M. Khaled, "Chromosomal aberrations in early-stage bilharzial bladder cancer.", Cancer genetics and cytogenetics, vol. 132, issue 1, pp. 41-5, 2002 Jan 1. Abstract

Bilharzial bladder cancer is one of the most common types of malignancy in both men and women in several developing countries including Egypt. It has several unique clinical, epidemiological, and histological characteristics, suggesting that it is an entity distinct from bladder cancer seen in Western countries. Genetic alterations in bilharzial-related bladder cancer have been studied infrequently, especially in the advanced stages of disease, that is, T3 and T4 classifications. The objective of this study was to extend establishing the baseline cytogenetic profile of this type of malignancy to early T1 and T2 classifications. For this purpose, fluorescence in situ hybridization was applied to interphase nuclei of frozen-stored samples with biotinylated repetitive DNA probes specific for all chromosomes to detect numerical chromosome changes in 35 patients presenting with relatively early-stage pT1 and pT2 disease. Eleven cases had squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and 24 had transitional cell carcinoma. Six of 24 transitional cell carcinomas had diploid chromosome counts with all the probes. Numerical chromosome aberrations were detected in 18 cases (75%). In 12 cases, a loss of chromosome 9 was observed. In three cases, an additional loss of chromosome 17 was detected. One case demonstrated a loss of chromosome 10, whereas another two cases showed a gain of chromosome 7, next to a loss of chromosome 9. Loss of chromosome Y was observed in nine of the 27 male cases studied (33.3%), in which only one case showed an abnormality whereas four cases were detected next to loss of chromosome 9, and one case showed gain of chromosome 7. Five cases showed loss of chromosome 19 whereas gain of chromosome 4 was detected in two cases. Two of 11 samples of SCC had normal diploid chromosome counts with all the probes used. In four of 11 cases (36.4%) underrepresentation of chromosome 9, compared with the other chromosomes, was detected. An additional loss of chromosome 17 and gain of chromosome 7, next to loss of chromosome 9, was detected in three cases. One case showed loss of chromosome 17 as the only numerical aberration. Loss of the Y chromosome was detected in three cases of which one case had gain of chromosome 7 and one case had loss of chromosome 19. No correlation was found between any of the clinicopathologic parameters examined in this study and the presence or absence of any numerical chromosomal aberrations except for the significant association between schistosomal history and loss of Y chromosome (P=0.007).

Aly, M. S. a, and H. M. b Khaled, "Chromosomal aberrations in Bilharzial bladder cancer as detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization", Cancer Genetics and Cytogenetics, vol. 114, no. 1, pp. 62-67, 1999. AbstractWebsite

Cancer of the bladder is a frequent malignancy in Egypt and other developing countries in which bladder infection with the parasite Schistosoma haematobium is common. Several epidemiological, histopathological, and clinical characteristics of cancer of the Bilharzial bladder suggest that it is distinct from bladder cancer seen in other places in the world. No numerical aberrations of chromosomes that might be specific for Bilharzial bladder carcinoma have been established. In this study, we used fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with centromere-specific probes for chromosomes 3, 4, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 16, and 17 to detect numerical aberrations of these chromosomes in frozen-stored samples of 31 Egyptian patients affected with Bilharzial carcinoma. Among 5 types of chromosomes examined, imbalance was observed; the most common imbalance was a loss of chromosome 9 (48.4%), with numerical aberration of chromosome 17 being the second most-frequent anomaly (19.4%). The presence of such anomalies, especially losses of chromosome 9, are associated with a younger age group of patients, as well as with a lower grade tumor and negative pelvic node involvement by the disease. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis thus proved to be a useful method for detecting numerical aberrations of individual chromosomes, with application to touch preparations of frozen-stored tissue having the advantage of exact sampling of cancer foci. This result also suggests that the mechanism of genetic progression of bladder cancer is independent of its etiology.

Amr, S. a, R. a Dawson, D. A. c Saleh, L. S. a Magder, N. N. e Mikhail, D. M. S. a George, K. b Squibb, H. d Khaled, and C. A. f Loffredo, "Agricultural workers and urinary bladder cancer risk in egypt", Archives of Environmental and Occupational Health, vol. 69, no. 1: Taylor and Francis Inc., pp. 3-10, 2014. AbstractWebsite

The authors examined the associations between farming and the risk for squamous cell (SCC) or urothelial cell (UC) carcinoma of the urinary bladder among Egyptians. The authors used data from a multicenter case-control study (1,525 male and 315 female cases, and 2,069 male and 547 female age- and residence-matched, population-based controls) to calculate adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Men in farming and who never smoked had increased risk for either SCC or UC (AOR [95% CI]: 4.65 [2.59-8.36] and 6.22 [3.82-10.15], respectively). If they ever smoked, their risks were 2.27 (1.75-2.95) and 1.93 (1.58-2.35), respectively. Women in farmer households were at increased risk for SCC (1.40 [0.93-2.09] and UC [1.25 (0.82-1.89]), although not statistically significant. Occupational and environmental exposures to farming increased the risk for bladder cancer among Egyptians. © 2014 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.