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2009
Lo, A. - C. a, A. a Georgopoulos, C. G. b Kleer, M. c Banerjee, S. d Omar, H. d Khaled, S. d Eissa, A. e Hablas, H. G. f Omar, J. A. g Douglas, et al., "Analysis of RhoC expression and lymphovascular emboli in inflammatory vs non-inflammatory breast cancers in Egyptian patients", Breast, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 55-59, 2009. AbstractWebsite

Understanding the molecular factors that distinguish inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) from non-IBC is important for IBC diagnosis. We reviewed the records of 48 IBC patients and 64 non-IBC patients from Egypt. We determined RhoC expression and tumor emboli and their relationship to demographic and reproductive characteristics. Compared with non-IBC patients, IBC patients had significantly lower parity (P = 0.018) and fewer palpable tumors (P < 0.0001). IBC tumors showed RhoC overexpression more frequently than non-IBC tumors (87% vs. 17%, respectively) (P < 0.0001). Tumor emboli were significantly more frequent in IBC tumors than non-IBC tumors (Mean ± SD: 14.1 ± 14.0 vs. 7.0 ± 12.9, respectively) (P < 0.0001). This study illustrates that RhoC overexpression and tumor emboli are more frequent in tumors of IBC relative to non-IBC from Egypt. Future studies should focus on relating epidemiologic factors to molecular features of IBC in this population. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Khaled, H. M. a, A. A. b Bahnassy, A. A. b Raafat, A. - R. N. c Zekri, M. S. d Madboul, and N. M. b Mokhtar, "Clinical significance of altered nm23-H1, EGFR, RB and p53 expression in bilharzial bladder cancer", BMC Cancer, vol. 9, 2009. AbstractWebsite

{Background: Clinical characterization of bladder carcinomas is still inadequate using the standard clinico-pathological prognostic markers. We assessed the correlation between nm23-H1, Rb, EGFR and p53 in relation to the clinical outcome of patients with muscle invasive bilharzial bladder cancer (MI-BBC). Methods: nm23-H1, Rb, EGFR and p53 expression was assessed in 59 MI-BBC patients using immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription (RT-PCR) and was correlated to the standard clinico-pathological prognostic factors, patient's outcome and the overall survival (OS) rate. Results: Overexpression of EGFR and p53 proteins was detected in 66.1% and 35.6%; respectively. Loss of nm23-H1and Rb proteins was detected in 42.4% and 57.6%; respectively. Increased EGFR and loss of nm23-H1 RNA were detected in 61.5% and 36.5%; respectively. There was a statistically significant correlation between p53 and EGFR overexpression (p < 0.0001), nm23 loss (protein and RNA), lymph node status (p < 0.0001); between the incidence of local recurrence and EGFR RNA overexpression (p = 0.003) as well as between the incidence of metastasis and altered Rb expression (p = 0.026), p53 overexpression (p < 0.0001) and mutation (p = 0.04). Advanced disease stage correlated significantly with increased EGFR (protein and RNA) (p = 0.003 & 0.01), reduced nm23-H1 RNA (p = 0.02), altered Rb (p = 0.023), and p53 overexpression (p = 0.004). OS rates correlated significantly, in univariate analysis, with p53 overexpression (p = 0.011), increased EGFR (protein and RNA

Khaled, H. M. a, A. A. b Bahnassy, A. A. b Raafat, A. - R. N. c Zekri, M. S. d Madboul, and N. M. b Mokhtar, "Clinical significance of altered nm23-H1, EGFR, RB and p53 expression in bilharzial bladder cancer", BMC Cancer, vol. 9, 2009. AbstractWebsite

{Background: Clinical characterization of bladder carcinomas is still inadequate using the standard clinico-pathological prognostic markers. We assessed the correlation between nm23-H1, Rb, EGFR and p53 in relation to the clinical outcome of patients with muscle invasive bilharzial bladder cancer (MI-BBC). Methods: nm23-H1, Rb, EGFR and p53 expression was assessed in 59 MI-BBC patients using immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription (RT-PCR) and was correlated to the standard clinico-pathological prognostic factors, patient's outcome and the overall survival (OS) rate. Results: Overexpression of EGFR and p53 proteins was detected in 66.1% and 35.6%; respectively. Loss of nm23-H1and Rb proteins was detected in 42.4% and 57.6%; respectively. Increased EGFR and loss of nm23-H1 RNA were detected in 61.5% and 36.5%; respectively. There was a statistically significant correlation between p53 and EGFR overexpression (p < 0.0001), nm23 loss (protein and RNA), lymph node status (p < 0.0001); between the incidence of local recurrence and EGFR RNA overexpression (p = 0.003) as well as between the incidence of metastasis and altered Rb expression (p = 0.026), p53 overexpression (p < 0.0001) and mutation (p = 0.04). Advanced disease stage correlated significantly with increased EGFR (protein and RNA) (p = 0.003 & 0.01), reduced nm23-H1 RNA (p = 0.02), altered Rb (p = 0.023), and p53 overexpression (p = 0.004). OS rates correlated significantly, in univariate analysis, with p53 overexpression (p = 0.011), increased EGFR (protein and RNA

Ismail, M. F., M. S. Aly, H. M. Khaled, and H. M. Mohamed, "Detection of HER-2/neu, c-myc amplification and p53 inactivation by FISH in Egyptian patients with breast cancer.", German medical science : GMS e-journal, vol. 7, pp. Doc03, 2009. AbstractWebsite

Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. The clinical course of this disease is highly variable and clinicians continuously search for prognostic parameters that can accurately predict prognosis, and indicate a suitable adjuvant therapy for each patient. Amplification of the two oncogenes HER-2/neu and c-myc and inactivation of the tumor suppressor gene p53 are frequently encountered in breast carcinomas. The purpose of this study was to use the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for the assessment of HER-2/neu and c-myc amplification and p53 inactivation and to relate these molecular markers with the commonly used clinical and pathological factors. The study was conducted on 34 tissue samples obtained from 33 females and 1 male with breast carcinomas and 17 samples obtained from 16 females and 1 male with benign breast lesions. Results revealed that the level of HER-2/neu, c-myc and p53 in the malignant group was significantly increased as compared to the benign group. On relating the level of the molecular markers to clinicopathological factors, p53 was significantly associated with increased patient's age. The sensitivity of the investigated markers significantly increased with larger tumor size. Concerning tumor grade, HER-2/neu and p53 showed a significant increase in low-grade tumors whereas c-myc showed a highly significant increase in high-grade tumors. With regard to disease staging, HER-2/neu and c-myc were the only markers that showed significant increase at late stages of disease. p53 and HER-2/neu were significantly associated with positive lymph nodal status. A significant correlation was obtained between the levels of the three biomarkers to each other. Conclusively, the combination of HER-2/neu, c-myc and p53 can stratify patients into different risk groups.

Ismail, M. F., M. S. Aly, H. M. Khaled, and H. M. Mohamed, "Detection of HER-2/neu, c-myc amplification and p53 inactivation by FISH in Egyptian patients with breast cancer.", German medical science : GMS e-journal, vol. 7, pp. Doc03, 2009. AbstractWebsite

Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. The clinical course of this disease is highly variable and clinicians continuously search for prognostic parameters that can accurately predict prognosis, and indicate a suitable adjuvant therapy for each patient. Amplification of the two oncogenes HER-2/neu and c-myc and inactivation of the tumor suppressor gene p53 are frequently encountered in breast carcinomas. The purpose of this study was to use the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for the assessment of HER-2/neu and c-myc amplification and p53 inactivation and to relate these molecular markers with the commonly used clinical and pathological factors. The study was conducted on 34 tissue samples obtained from 33 females and 1 male with breast carcinomas and 17 samples obtained from 16 females and 1 male with benign breast lesions. Results revealed that the level of HER-2/neu, c-myc and p53 in the malignant group was significantly increased as compared to the benign group. On relating the level of the molecular markers to clinicopathological factors, p53 was significantly associated with increased patient's age. The sensitivity of the investigated markers significantly increased with larger tumor size. Concerning tumor grade, HER-2/neu and p53 showed a significant increase in low-grade tumors whereas c-myc showed a highly significant increase in high-grade tumors. With regard to disease staging, HER-2/neu and c-myc were the only markers that showed significant increase at late stages of disease. p53 and HER-2/neu were significantly associated with positive lymph nodal status. A significant correlation was obtained between the levels of the three biomarkers to each other. Conclusively, the combination of HER-2/neu, c-myc and p53 can stratify patients into different risk groups.

2008
Anwar, W. A., H. M. Khaled, H. A. Amra, H. El-Nezami, and C. A. Loffredo, "Changing pattern of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and its risk factors in Egypt: possibilities for prevention.", Mutation research, vol. 659, issue 1-2, pp. 176-84, 2008 Jul-Aug. Abstract

The burden of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been increasing in Egypt with a doubling in the incidence rate in the past 10 years. This has been attributed to several biological (e.g. hepatitis B and C virus infection) and environmental factors (e.g. aflatoxin, AF). Other factors such as cigarette smoking, occupational exposure to chemicals such as pesticides, and endemic infections in the community, such as schistosomiasis, may have additional roles in the etiology or progression of the disease. Estimates of the burden of cancer caused by these factors provide an opportunity for prevention. Previously, there was strong evidence that hepatitis B virus (HBV) was the major cause of HCC in Egypt, but more recently HCV has become the predominant factor associated with the more recent epidemic of HCC. It has been well documented that Egypt has one of the highest prevalence rates of HCV infection in the world. The natural history of HCV infection and disease progression, however, are influenced by additional factors such as duration of infection, age at infection, sex, co-infection with HBV, the level of HCV viraemia and its genotype. The role of exposure to aflatoxins and development of HCC in Egypt was historically less clear. Nevertheless, recent food sampling surveys and population-based studies indicated that exposure to aflatoxins in Egypt may have been underestimated in the past. Recent results indicated that both local and imported samples were positive for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1, 17.5% and 20%, respectively), with concentrations ranging from 3 to 25 microg/kg. The level of AFB1 was dependent on the area of collection as well as the season of the year. In a population-based study, the level and frequency of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1, a major metabolite of aflatoxin B1 excreted in breast milk) was assessed as a biomarker of maternal exposure. The samples were collected from a selected group of 388 Egyptian lactating mothers during May-September 2003. Non-working status, obesity, high corn oil consumption, and the number of offspring contributed to the variability in occurrence of AFM1 in breast milk. Prevention and intervention approaches directed to risk factors of HCC can play a critical role in its prevention. In the case of HCV infection a prevention programme can be achieved by changing personal behaviors and/or cultural habits which are risk factors for HCV transmission, such as injection with contaminated syringes, blood transfusion, surgical operations, venous catheterization, use of common syringes, dental treatment and circumcision at home. Prevention of exposure to aflatoxins can be achieved either at community (via good agriculture practices) or individual levels (treatment or dietary interventions). In conclusion, due to the alarming increase in the incidence of HCC in Egypt, there is a need to further investigate the contribution of these emerging risk factors to the development of HCC in Egypt. This may enable us to determine the susceptibility to HCC among high-risk groups and to provide these individuals with effective measures for early prevention or intervention.

Zekri, A. - R. N., M. M. Hafez, A. A. Bahnassy, Z. K. Hassan, T. Mansour, M. M. Kamal, and H. M. Khaled, "Genetic profile of Egyptian hepatocellular-carcinoma associated with hepatitis C virus Genotype 4 by 15 K cDNA microarray: preliminary study.", BMC research notes, vol. 1, pp. 106, 2008. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a preventable disease rather than a curable one, since there is no well-documented effective treatment modality until now, making the molecular study of this disease mandatory.

FINDINGS: We studied gene expression profile of 17 Egyptian HCC patients associated with HCV genotype-4 infection by c-DNA microarray. Out of the 15,660 studied genes, 446 were differentially expressed; 180 of them were up regulated and 134 were down regulated. Seventeen genes out of the 180 up-regulated genes are involved in 28 different pathways. Protein phosphatase 3 (PPP3R1) is involved in 10 different pathways followed by fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1), Cas-Br-M ecotropic retroviral transforming sequence b (CBLB), spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) involved in three pathways; bone morphogenetic protein 8a (BMP8A), laminin alpha 3 (LAMA3), cell division cycle 23 (CDC23) involved in 2 pathways and NOTCH4 which regulate Notch signaling pathway. On the other hand, 25 out of the 134 down-regulated genes are involved in 20 different pathways. Integrin alpha V alpha polypeptide antigen CD51 (ITGVA) is involved in 4 pathways followed by lymphotoxin alpha (TNF superfamily, member 1) (LTA) involved in 3 pathways and alpha-2-macroglobulin (A2M), phosphorylase kinase alpha 2-liver (PHKA2) and MAGI1 membrane associated guanylate kinase 1 (MAGI1) involved in 2 pathways. In addition, 22 genes showed significantly differential expression between HCC cases with cirrhosis and without cirrhosis. Confirmation analysis was performed on subsets of these genes by RT-PCR, including some up-regulated genes such as CDK4, Bax, NOTCH4 and some down-regulated genes such as ISGF3G, TNF, and VISA.

CONCLUSION: This is the first preliminary study on gene expression profile in Egyptian HCC patients associated with HCV-Genotype-4 using the cDNA microarray. The identified genes could provide a new gate for prognostic and diagnostic markers for HCC associated with HCV. They could also be used to identify candidate genes for molecular target therapy.

Anwar, W. A. a, H. M. b Khaled, H. A. c Amra, H. d El-Nezami, and C. A. e Loffredo, "Changing pattern of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and its risk factors in Egypt: Possibilities for prevention", Mutation Research - Reviews in Mutation Research, vol. 659, no. 1-2, pp. 176-184, 2008. AbstractWebsite

The burden of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been increasing in Egypt with a doubling in the incidence rate in the past 10 years. This has been attributed to several biological (e.g. hepatitis B and C virus infection) and environmental factors (e.g. aflatoxin, AF). Other factors such as cigarette smoking, occupational exposure to chemicals such as pesticides, and endemic infections in the community, such as schistosomiasis, may have additional roles in the etiology or progression of the disease. Estimates of the burden of cancer caused by these factors provide an opportunity for prevention. Previously, there was strong evidence that hepatitis B virus (HBV) was the major cause of HCC in Egypt, but more recently HCV has become the predominant factor associated with the more recent epidemic of HCC. It has been well documented that Egypt has one of the highest prevalence rates of HCV infection in the world. The natural history of HCV infection and disease progression, however, are influenced by additional factors such as duration of infection, age at infection, sex, co-infection with HBV, the level of HCV viraemia and its genotype. The role of exposure to aflatoxins and development of HCC in Egypt was historically less clear. Nevertheless, recent food sampling surveys and population-based studies indicated that exposure to aflatoxins in Egypt may have been underestimated in the past. Recent results indicated that both local and imported samples were positive for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1, 17.5% and 20%, respectively), with concentrations ranging from 3 to 25 μg/kg. The level of AFB1 was dependent on the area of collection as well as the season of the year. In a population-based study, the level and frequency of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1, a major metabolite of aflatoxin B1 excreted in breast milk) was assessed as a biomarker of maternal exposure. The samples were collected from a selected group of 388 Egyptian lactating mothers during May-September 2003. Non-working status, obesity, high corn oil consumption, and the number of offspring contributed to the variability in occurrence of AFM1 in breast milk. Prevention and intervention approaches directed to risk factors of HCC can play a critical role in its prevention. In the case of HCV infection a prevention programme can be achieved by changing personal behaviors and/or cultural habits which are risk factors for HCV transmission, such as injection with contaminated syringes, blood transfusion, surgical operations, venous catheterization, use of common syringes, dental treatment and circumcision at home. Prevention of exposure to aflatoxins can be achieved either at community (via good agriculture practices) or individual levels (treatment or dietary interventions). In conclusion, due to the alarming increase in the incidence of HCC in Egypt, there is a need to further investigate the contribution of these emerging risk factors to the development of HCC in Egypt. This may enable us to determine the susceptibility to HCC among high-risk groups and to provide these individuals with effective measures for early prevention or intervention. © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Anwar, W. A. a, H. M. b Khaled, H. A. c Amra, H. d El-Nezami, and C. A. e Loffredo, "Changing pattern of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and its risk factors in Egypt: Possibilities for prevention", Mutation Research - Reviews in Mutation Research, vol. 659, no. 1-2, pp. 176-184, 2008. AbstractWebsite

The burden of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been increasing in Egypt with a doubling in the incidence rate in the past 10 years. This has been attributed to several biological (e.g. hepatitis B and C virus infection) and environmental factors (e.g. aflatoxin, AF). Other factors such as cigarette smoking, occupational exposure to chemicals such as pesticides, and endemic infections in the community, such as schistosomiasis, may have additional roles in the etiology or progression of the disease. Estimates of the burden of cancer caused by these factors provide an opportunity for prevention. Previously, there was strong evidence that hepatitis B virus (HBV) was the major cause of HCC in Egypt, but more recently HCV has become the predominant factor associated with the more recent epidemic of HCC. It has been well documented that Egypt has one of the highest prevalence rates of HCV infection in the world. The natural history of HCV infection and disease progression, however, are influenced by additional factors such as duration of infection, age at infection, sex, co-infection with HBV, the level of HCV viraemia and its genotype. The role of exposure to aflatoxins and development of HCC in Egypt was historically less clear. Nevertheless, recent food sampling surveys and population-based studies indicated that exposure to aflatoxins in Egypt may have been underestimated in the past. Recent results indicated that both local and imported samples were positive for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1, 17.5% and 20%, respectively), with concentrations ranging from 3 to 25 μg/kg. The level of AFB1 was dependent on the area of collection as well as the season of the year. In a population-based study, the level and frequency of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1, a major metabolite of aflatoxin B1 excreted in breast milk) was assessed as a biomarker of maternal exposure. The samples were collected from a selected group of 388 Egyptian lactating mothers during May-September 2003. Non-working status, obesity, high corn oil consumption, and the number of offspring contributed to the variability in occurrence of AFM1 in breast milk. Prevention and intervention approaches directed to risk factors of HCC can play a critical role in its prevention. In the case of HCV infection a prevention programme can be achieved by changing personal behaviors and/or cultural habits which are risk factors for HCV transmission, such as injection with contaminated syringes, blood transfusion, surgical operations, venous catheterization, use of common syringes, dental treatment and circumcision at home. Prevention of exposure to aflatoxins can be achieved either at community (via good agriculture practices) or individual levels (treatment or dietary interventions). In conclusion, due to the alarming increase in the incidence of HCC in Egypt, there is a need to further investigate the contribution of these emerging risk factors to the development of HCC in Egypt. This may enable us to determine the susceptibility to HCC among high-risk groups and to provide these individuals with effective measures for early prevention or intervention. © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Felix, A. S. a, A. S. a Soliman, H. b Khaled, M. S. b c Zaghloul, M. d Banerjee, M. b El-Baradie, M. b El-Kalawy, A. A. e Abd-Elsayed, K. f Ismail, A. f Hablas, et al., "The changing patterns of bladder cancer in Egypt over the past 26 years", Cancer Causes and Control, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 421-429, 2008. AbstractWebsite

Objective: To evaluate temporal changes in histopathological types of bladder cancer and to assess associated changes in demographic, epidemiologic, and lifestyle risk factors. Methods: We abstracted data from all available medical records from the National Cancer Institute of Cairo University (NCI-Cairo). Six calendar years representing 5-year periods between 1980 and 2005 were evaluated. Information on demographics, schistosomal infection, clinical symptoms of bladder cancer, and tumor pathology was abstracted. Results: During this 26-year period, important changes in the frequency of histopathological types of bladder cancer occurred. We found a statistically significant association between time period of diagnosis and histopathological type. Patients diagnosed in 2005 had a sixfold higher odds associated with transitional cell carcinoma compared to those patients diagnosed in 1980 (odds ratio (OR) 6.00 (95% CI 4.00-8.97)). Conclusions: These data strongly suggest that the histopathological profile of bladder cancer in Egypt has changed significantly over the past 26 years. Historically, squamous cell carcinoma was the predominant form of bladder cancer in Egypt; however transitional cell carcinoma has become the most frequent type. These results corroborate findings from a few small-scale hospital-based studies which conclude that the etiology of bladder cancer in Egypt has changed significantly over the past 26 years. © 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Zekri, A. - R. N. a, M. M. a Hafez, A. A. b Bahnassy, Z. K. a Hassan, T. a Mansour, M. M. c Kamal, and H. M. d Khaled, "Genetic profile of Egyptian hepatocellular-carcinoma associated with hepatitis C virus Genotype 4 by 15 K cDNA microarray: Preliminary study", BMC Research Notes, vol. 1, 2008. AbstractWebsite

Background. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a preventable disease rather than a curable one, since there is no well-documented effective treatment modality until now, making the molecular study of this disease mandatory. Findings. We studied gene expression profile of 17 Egyptian HCC patients associated with HCV genotype-4 infection by c-DNA microarray. Out of the 15,660 studied genes, 446 were differentially expressed; 180 of them were up regulated and 134 were down regulated. Seventeen genes out of the 180 up-regulated genes are involved in 28 different pathways. Protein phosphatase 3 (PPP3R1) is involved in 10 different pathways followed by fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1), Cas-Br-M ecotropic retroviral transforming sequence b (CBLB), spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) involved in three pathways; bone morphogenetic protein 8a (BMP8A), laminin alpha 3 (LAMA3), cell division cycle 23 (CDC23) involved in 2 pathways and NOTCH4 which regulate Notch signaling pathway. On the other hand, 25 out of the 134 down-regulated genes are involved in 20 different pathways. Integrin alpha V alpha polypeptide antigen CD51 (ITGVA) is involved in 4 pathways followed by lymphotoxin alpha (TNF superfamily, member 1) (LTA) involved in 3 pathways and alpha-2-macroglobulin (A2M), phosphorylase kinase alpha 2-liver (PHKA2) and MAGI1 membrane associated guanylate kinase 1 (MAGI1) involved in 2 pathways. In addition, 22 genes showed significantly differential expression between HCC cases with cirrhosis and without cirrhosis. Confirmation analysis was performed on subsets of these genes by RT-PCR, including some up-regulated genes such as CDK4, Bax, NOTCH4 and some down-regulated genes such as ISGF3G, TNF, and VISA. Conclusion. This is the first preliminary study on gene expression profile in Egyptian HCC patients associated with HCV-Genotype-4 using the cDNA microarray. The identified genes could provide a new gate for prognostic and diagnostic markers for HCC associated with HCV. They could also be used to identify candidate genes for molecular target therapy. © 2008 Zekri et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Zekri, A. - R. N. a, M. M. a Hafez, A. A. b Bahnassy, Z. K. a Hassan, T. a Mansour, M. M. c Kamal, and H. M. d Khaled, "Genetic profile of Egyptian hepatocellular-carcinoma associated with hepatitis C virus Genotype 4 by 15 K cDNA microarray: Preliminary study", BMC Research Notes, vol. 1, 2008. AbstractWebsite

Background. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a preventable disease rather than a curable one, since there is no well-documented effective treatment modality until now, making the molecular study of this disease mandatory. Findings. We studied gene expression profile of 17 Egyptian HCC patients associated with HCV genotype-4 infection by c-DNA microarray. Out of the 15,660 studied genes, 446 were differentially expressed; 180 of them were up regulated and 134 were down regulated. Seventeen genes out of the 180 up-regulated genes are involved in 28 different pathways. Protein phosphatase 3 (PPP3R1) is involved in 10 different pathways followed by fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1), Cas-Br-M ecotropic retroviral transforming sequence b (CBLB), spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) involved in three pathways; bone morphogenetic protein 8a (BMP8A), laminin alpha 3 (LAMA3), cell division cycle 23 (CDC23) involved in 2 pathways and NOTCH4 which regulate Notch signaling pathway. On the other hand, 25 out of the 134 down-regulated genes are involved in 20 different pathways. Integrin alpha V alpha polypeptide antigen CD51 (ITGVA) is involved in 4 pathways followed by lymphotoxin alpha (TNF superfamily, member 1) (LTA) involved in 3 pathways and alpha-2-macroglobulin (A2M), phosphorylase kinase alpha 2-liver (PHKA2) and MAGI1 membrane associated guanylate kinase 1 (MAGI1) involved in 2 pathways. In addition, 22 genes showed significantly differential expression between HCC cases with cirrhosis and without cirrhosis. Confirmation analysis was performed on subsets of these genes by RT-PCR, including some up-regulated genes such as CDK4, Bax, NOTCH4 and some down-regulated genes such as ISGF3G, TNF, and VISA. Conclusion. This is the first preliminary study on gene expression profile in Egyptian HCC patients associated with HCV-Genotype-4 using the cDNA microarray. The identified genes could provide a new gate for prognostic and diagnostic markers for HCC associated with HCV. They could also be used to identify candidate genes for molecular target therapy. © 2008 Zekri et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Lo, A. - C. a, C. G. b Kleer, M. c Banerjee, S. d Omar, H. d Khaled, S. d Eissa, A. e Hablas, J. A. f Douglas, S. H. g Alford, S. D. h Merajver, et al., "Molecular epidemiologic features of inflammatory breast cancer: A comparison between Egyptian and US patients", Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, vol. 112, no. 1, pp. 141-147, 2008. AbstractWebsite

{Background: Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a lethal form of breast cancer with unknown etiology. A higher frequency of IBC and a more aggressive IBC phenotype was reported in Egypt than in the United States. This difference in disease frequency and presentation might be related to molecular epidemiologic factors. Methods: We used tumor blocks and demographic, epidemiologic, and clinical data of 48 IBC patients from Egypt and 12 patients from the United States. We counted tumor emboli in tumors before and after immunohistochemical staining with lymphatic vessel endothelial receptor-1 (LYVE-1), and measured the expression of RhoC GTPase protein in the two groups. Results: Erythema, edema, and peau d'orange were found in 77% of the Egyptian patients as compared with 29% found in the US patients (P = 0.02). The number of tumor emboli was significantly higher in tumors from Egypt (mean ± SD, 14.1 ± 14.0) than in the tumors from the United States (5.0 ± 4.0

Lo, A. - C. a, C. G. b Kleer, M. c Banerjee, S. d Omar, H. d Khaled, S. d Eissa, A. e Hablas, J. A. f Douglas, S. H. g Alford, S. D. h Merajver, et al., "Molecular epidemiologic features of inflammatory breast cancer: A comparison between Egyptian and US patients", Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, vol. 112, no. 1, pp. 141-147, 2008. AbstractWebsite

{Background: Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a lethal form of breast cancer with unknown etiology. A higher frequency of IBC and a more aggressive IBC phenotype was reported in Egypt than in the United States. This difference in disease frequency and presentation might be related to molecular epidemiologic factors. Methods: We used tumor blocks and demographic, epidemiologic, and clinical data of 48 IBC patients from Egypt and 12 patients from the United States. We counted tumor emboli in tumors before and after immunohistochemical staining with lymphatic vessel endothelial receptor-1 (LYVE-1), and measured the expression of RhoC GTPase protein in the two groups. Results: Erythema, edema, and peau d'orange were found in 77% of the Egyptian patients as compared with 29% found in the US patients (P = 0.02). The number of tumor emboli was significantly higher in tumors from Egypt (mean ± SD, 14.1 ± 14.0) than in the tumors from the United States (5.0 ± 4.0

Khaled, H. a, M. E. a Emara, R. M. a Gaafar, O. A. Mansour, A. a Abdel Warith, M. S. b Zaghloul, and O. c El Malt, "Primary chemotherapy with low-dose prolonged infusion gemcitabine and cisplatin in patients with bladder cancer: A Phase II trial", Urologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 133-136, 2008. AbstractWebsite

Background: Gemcitabine is an active agent in the treatment of bladder cancer. The enzyme deoxycytidine kinase catalyzes the phosphorylation of gemcitabine into the active gemcitabine triphosphate. After an infusion during 30 minutes, this enzyme will be saturated, therefore, accumulation of higher intracellular concentrations of the active gemcitabine triphosphate could be achieved by prolonging the infusion time of gemcitabine. Patients and methods: Based on previously published Phase I trials, the efficacy and safety of a combination of cisplatin and gemcitabine given as prolonged infusion were tried in a Phase II study of 57 untreated patients with stage III/IV bladder cancer, which is the most common malignant tumor among Egyptian males. Patients received gemcitabine (250 mg/m2 during 6-hour infusion) on days 1 and 8, and cisplatin (70 mg/m2) on day 2 every 21-day cycle. Results: The 41 males and 16 females had a median age of 55 years (range 37-77). A total of 37 patients had transitional cell, 15 had squamous cell, 2 had adenocarcinoma, and 3 had undifferentiated cell carcinoma. The median number of cycles given to these 57 patients was 4 (range 1-6). Of 54 evaluable patients, 5 (9.4%) had complete remission, and 27 (50%) partial remission, for an overall response rate of 59.4%. These results are comparable to those of a previous Phase II study of the same combination but with gemcitabine given in the standard dose and schedule. Responses were observed at all disease sites. Both hematologic and nonhematologic toxicity were treatable and not severe. Conclusions: Prolonged infusion of gemcitabine and cisplatin is an effective treatment for advanced bilharzial-related bladder cancer. Toxicity, especially myelosuppression, is surprisingly mild. This combination deserves to be tried in other different disease categories. © 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2007
El-Bolkainy, T. N., M. N. El-Bolkainy, H. M. Khaled, N. M. Mokhtar, S. S. Eissa, H. M. Gouda, and O. H. El-Hattab, "Evaluation of MIB-1 and p53 overexpression as risk factors in large cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma in adults.", Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute, vol. 19, issue 4, pp. 231-8, 2007 Dec. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Improvement of current results of therapy for large cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients can be achieved by optimization of initial treatment or application of risk-adapted therapy. The international prognostic index ( IPI), introduced to identify high-risk patients, was recently criticized because it was based on clinical risk factors only, ignoring important tumor molecular risk factors and it fails to identify a sector of high-risk patients, who ultimately relapse.

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the value of two tumor biomarkers:MIB-1 and p53 as potential risk factors in diffuse large cell lymphoma. MIB-1 measures tumor cell proliferation, whereas p53 is related to tumor progression and response to chemotherapy.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study was done on 69 adult patients with diffuse large cell NHL ( 58 B-phenotype and 11 T-phenotype). Clinical risk assessment was determined by the IPI and patients with a score of 3 or more were considered high-risk. Expression of MIB-1 and p53 was determined by immunohistochemistry and nuclear staining was quantitated by image analysis. Immunoexpression was considered high for MIB-1 nuclear count 50% and p53 counts 20%. Evaluation included both response to chemotherapy ( mostly CHOP), as well as 2- year overall survival analysis.

RESULTS: The IPI was the only clinical variable which had a significant impact on survival. Overexpression of both MIB-1 and p53 was associated with poor response to treatment, as well as unfavorable survival. Combined risk factor analysis revealed that only MIB-1 was an independent variable. MIB-1 could also identify some high-risk patients previously categorized in the IPI lowrisk group.

CONCLUSIONS: MIB-1 is an independent biologic risk factor for large cell NHL. In order to optimize risk assessment of these patients, it is recommended to construct a new prognostic index by adding MIB-1 overexpression to the other clinical factors of standard IPI. This may allow better identification of high-risk patients and help to guide planning of effective initial treatment. Key Words:NHL - MIB-1 - p53 - CHOP - Risk factors.

Soliman, A. S., A. - C. Lo, M. Banerjee, N. El-Ghawalby, H. M. Khaled, S. Bayoumi, I. A. Seifeldin, A. Abdel-Aziz, J. L. Abbruzzese, J. K. Greenson, et al., "Differences in K-ras and p53 gene mutations among pancreatic adenocarcinomas associated with regional environmental pollution.", Carcinogenesis, vol. 28, issue 8, pp. 1794-9, 2007 Aug. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Variations in genetic mutations in pancreatic carcinoma between different geographical regions have not been studied extensively, especially in developing countries where pancreatic cancer is relatively rare.

METHODS: We studied the molecular pathology of 54 pancreatic adenocarcinomas from Egyptian patients residing in a heavily polluted region of the eastern Nile River delta and compared the findings with 45 tumors from patients residing in low-pollution regions.

RESULTS: Rates of K-ras mutation in codon 12 and of p53 mutation in exons 5-8 were higher in tumors of patients from the high-pollution region as compared with the low-pollution regions (61.5 versus 34.2%, respectively, for K-ras, P = 0.01; 25.9 versus 11.6%, respectively, for p53, P = 0.08). There were also distinct differences in the specific types of K-ras and p53 mutations between the two regions. The ratio of G-to-T k-ras transversion mutation (codon 12) relative to wild-type was significantly higher in tumors from the high-pollution region (0.90) than tumors from the non-pollution site (0.28) (P = 0.03). Relative to tumors with wild-type, the ratio of p53 mutations in exons 5, 7 or 8 to wild-type in tumors from the high-pollution region was significantly higher than the ratio from the non-pollution site (0.28 versus 0.03, P = 0.01). Logistic regression showed that G-to-T transversion mutation in K-ras was predicted by the region of residence of the patients.

CONCLUSIONS: Our study reveals that there are differences in the frequencies and types of K-ras and p53 mutations found in pancreatic adenocarcinomas of patients in high-pollution and low-pollution regions in Egypt and suggests that environmental factors may explain these differences. We speculate that gene-environment interactions in pancreatic carcinogenesis also occur in other populations.

Lo, A. - C., A. S. Soliman, N. El-Ghawalby, M. Abdel-Wahab, O. Fathy, H. M. Khaled, S. Omar, S. R. Hamilton, J. K. Greenson, and J. L. Abbruzzese, "Lifestyle, occupational, and reproductive factors in relation to pancreatic cancer risk.", Pancreas, vol. 35, issue 2, pp. 120-9, 2007 Aug. Abstract

OBJECTIVES: This study examined the epidemiology of pancreatic cancer in Egypt.

METHODS: We obtained detailed information on smoking, occupational, medical, and reproductive histories from 194 pancreatic cancer cases and 194 controls.

RESULTS: Compared with not smoking, smoking cigarettes alone or in conjunction with other smoking methods (eg, water pipe, cigar) was associated with an increased risk (odds ratio [OR], 4.5 and 7.8; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.9-10.7 and 3.0-20.6, respectively). Passive smoking was also a significant risk factor (OR, 6.0; 95% CI, 2.4-14.8). The risk of pancreatic cancer was elevated among subjects exposed to pesticides (OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 0.97-7.2). A prior diagnosis of diabetes mellitus for a period of 10 years was associated with higher risk (OR, 5.4; 95% CI, 1.5-19.9). For women, having 7 or more live births and lactating for 144 months or longer were associated with a reduced risk (OR, 0.5 and 0.2; 95% CI, 0.2-1.3 and 0.1-0.9, respectively). No association was found between family history, allergy, or obesity and pancreatic cancer in Egypt.

CONCLUSIONS: Multiple tobacco consumption methods, passive smoking, pesticide exposures, and diabetes are associated with an increased risk for pancreatic cancer. Prolonged lactation and increased parity are associated with a reduced risk for pancreatic cancer.

Soliman, A. S. a, A. - C. a Lo, M. b Banerjee, N. c El-Ghawalby, H. M. d Khaled, S. e Bayoumi, I. A. e Seifeldin, A. f Abdel-Aziz, J. L. g Abbruzzese, J. K. h Greenson, et al., "Differences in K-ras and p53 gene mutations among pancreatic adenocarcinomas associated with regional environmental pollution", Carcinogenesis, vol. 28, no. 8, pp. 1794-1799, 2007. AbstractWebsite

{Background: Variations in genetic mutations in pancreatic carcinoma between different geographical regions have not been studied extensively, especially in developing countries where pancreatic cancer is relatively rare. Methods: We studied the molecular pathology of 54 pancreatic adenocarcinomas from Egyptian patients residing in a heavily polluted region of the eastern Nile River delta and compared the findings with 45 tumors from patients residing in low-pollution regions. Results: Rates of K-ras mutation in codon 12 and of p53 mutation in exons 5-8 were higher in tumors of patients from the high-pollution region as compared with the low-pollution regions (61.5 versus 34.2%, respectively, for K-ras

El-Bolkainy, T. N., M. N. el-Bolkainy, H. M. Khaled, N. M. Mokhtar, S. S. Eissa, H. M. Gouda, and O. H. El-Hattab, "Evaluation of MIB-1 and p53 overexpression as risk factors in large cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma in adults.", Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 231-238, 2007. AbstractWebsite

BACKGROUND: Improvement of current results of therapy for large cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients can be achieved by optimization of initial treatment or application of risk-adapted therapy. The international prognostic index ( IPI), introduced to identify high-risk patients, was recently criticized because it was based on clinical risk factors only, ignoring important tumor molecular risk factors and it fails to identify a sector of high-risk patients, who ultimately relapse. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the value of two tumor biomarkers:MIB-1 and p53 as potential risk factors in diffuse large cell lymphoma. MIB-1 measures tumor cell proliferation, whereas p53 is related to tumor progression and response to chemotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study was done on 69 adult patients with diffuse large cell NHL ( 58 B-phenotype and 11 T-phenotype). Clinical risk assessment was determined by the IPI and patients with a score of 3 or more were considered high-risk. Expression of MIB-1 and p53 was determined by immunohistochemistry and nuclear staining was quantitated by image analysis. Immunoexpression was considered high for MIB-1 nuclear count 50% and p53 counts 20%. Evaluation included both response to chemotherapy ( mostly CHOP), as well as 2- year overall survival analysis. RESULTS: The IPI was the only clinical variable which had a significant impact on survival. Overexpression of both MIB-1 and p53 was associated with poor response to treatment, as well as unfavorable survival. Combined risk factor analysis revealed that only MIB-1 was an independent variable. MIB-1 could also identify some high-risk patients previously categorized in the IPI lowrisk group. CONCLUSIONS: MIB-1 is an independent biologic risk factor for large cell NHL. In order to optimize risk assessment of these patients, it is recommended to construct a new prognostic index by adding MIB-1 overexpression to the other clinical factors of standard IPI. This may allow better identification of high-risk patients and help to guide planning of effective initial treatment. Key Words:NHL - MIB-1 - p53 - CHOP - Risk factors.

Lo, A. - C. a, A. S. a g Soliman, N. b El-Ghawalby, M. b Abdel-Wahab, O. b Fathy, H. M. c Khaled, S. c Omar, S. R. d Hamilton, J. K. e Greenson, and J. L. f Abbruzzese, "Lifestyle, occupational, and reproductive factors in relation to pancreatic cancer risk", Pancreas, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 120-129, 2007. AbstractWebsite

OBJECTIVES: This study examined the epidemiology of pancreatic cancer in Egypt. METHODS: We obtained detailed information on smoking, occupational, medical, and reproductive histories from 194 pancreatic cancer cases and 194 controls. RESULTS: Compared with not smoking, smoking cigarettes alone or in conjunction with other smoking methods (eg, water pipe, cigar) was associated with an increased risk (odds ratio [OR], 4.5 and 7.8; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.9-10.7 and 3.0-20.6, respectively). Passive smoking was also a significant risk factor (OR, 6.0; 95% CI, 2.4-14.8). The risk of pancreatic cancer was elevated among subjects exposed to pesticides (OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 0.97-7.2). A prior diagnosis of diabetes mellitus for a period of 10 years was associated with higher risk (OR, 5.4; 95% CI, 1.5-19.9). For women, having 7 or more live births and lactating for 144 months or longer were associated with a reduced risk (OR, 0.5 and 0.2; 95% CI, 0.2-1.3 and 0.1-0.9, respectively). No association was found between family history, allergy, or obesity and pancreatic cancer in Egypt. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple tobacco consumption methods, passive smoking, pesticide exposures, and diabetes are associated with an increased risk for pancreatic cancer. Prolonged lactation and increased parity are associated with a reduced risk for pancreatic cancer. © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

2006
Khaled, H. M., "Breast cancer at diagnosis in women of Africa and the Middle East", Breast Cancer in Women of African Descent: Springer Netherlands, pp. 81-90, 2006. AbstractWebsite

The myth behind the aetiology and efforts towards treatment and prevention of breast cancer were always present since antiquity. Two Egyptian papyruses, written approximately 1600 B.C. are concerned with the disease, the Edwin Smith Papyrus and the Ebers Papyrus. The first includes a case (no. 45) of bulging tumour of the breast recorded in lines 9 to 20 of the reproduction: If thou examinest a man having bulging tumours on his breast, (and) thou findest that (swellings) have spread over the breast; if thou puttest thy hand upon his breast upon these tumours, (and) thou findest them very cool, there being no fever at all therein when thy hand touches him, they have no granulation, they form no fluid, and they are bulging to thy hand, thou should say concerning him one having bulging tumours. An ailment with which I will attend. There is no (treatment). © 2006 Springer.

2005
Khaled, H. M., "Systemic management of bladder cancer in Egypt: revisited.", Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute, vol. 17, issue 3, pp. 127-31, 2005 Sep. Abstract

Bladder cancer is still the most frequent malignant tumor among Egyptian males. It has a peculiar biologic, clinico-pathologic features and responsiveness to chemotherapy profile than that observed in Western countries. The current review aims to demonstrate the present state-of- art in using systemic therapy as part of the management options available to treat such patients at different stages of their disease. Individualizing therapy for these patients based on more rationale basis is the challenge that oncologists must face in the near future.

Bahnassi, A. A., A. - R. N. Zekri, S. El-Houssini, N. M. Mokhtar, A. O. Abdel-Aziz, G. M. Sherif, A. M. El-Mishad, and H. M. Khaled, "Hepatitis C virus-NS3P in relation to p53, p21waf, mdm2, p21-ras and c-erbB2 in hepatocarcinogenesis.", Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology, vol. 20, issue 11, pp. 1731-40, 2005 Nov. Abstract

BACKGROUND: The non-structural protein 3 (NS3P) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genome was linked to the neoplastic transformation of normal hepatocytes in chronically infected patients. However, the exact mechanisms involved in this process are unidentified yet, especially in the Egyptian population where the commonest type is genotype 4.

METHODS: We investigated 32 HCV reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) positive hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cases and 18 morphologically normal hepatic tissues distant to tumors (MNT) for the correlation between HCV-NS3P, p53, p21(waf), mdm2, p21ras and c-erbB2 and DNA content by immunohistochemistry and image analysis.

RESULTS: The NS3P expression was lower in HCC (65.6%) than in MNT (94.4%) patients. The expression level of studied genes in HCC was: p53 (56.25%), p21(waf) (43.7%), mdm2 (59.4%), p21-ras (73.3%) and c-erbB2 (75%). Whereas in MNT, it was 22.2, 61.1, 44.4, 41.2 and 77.8%, respectively. The NS3P expression showed a significant correlation with the presence of cirrhosis, chronic active hepatitis (CAH) and tumor grade (P < 0.05). c-erbB2 overexpression and p21(waf) loss were higher in MNT than in HCC patients, however, this did not reach a statistically significant level. There was a statistically significant correlation between NS3P, c-erbB2 and p21(waf) (P < 0.01). There was also a significant correlation between p21(waf) loss and CAH (P = 0.01) as well as between mdm2, c-erbB2 and cirrhosis (P = 0.025 and 0.001) in HCC cases. There was a statistically significant difference in the ploidy status between HCC and MNT, but there was no significant relationship between the ploidy status and other clinicopathological features.

CONCLUSION: The carcinogenic effect of NS3P is probably exerted at an early stage of HCC possibly through a pathway involving c-erbB2 and p21(waf) alterations. In contrast, p53, p21ras and mdm2 alterations are late events in hepatocarcinogenesis and are usually associated with an aggressive phenotype.

Zekri, A. R. N., H. A. M. El-Din, A. A. Bahnassy, A. M. R. El-Shehabi, H. El-Leethy, A. Omar, and H. M. Khaled, "TRUGENE sequencing versus INNO-LiPA for sub-genotyping of HCV genotype-4.", Journal of medical virology, vol. 75, issue 3, pp. 412-20, 2005 Mar. Abstract

Hepatitis C virus genotypes and subtypes determination is an important factor for understanding the epidemiology of the virus, in the pre-treatment evaluation of the patients and in defining better treatment strategies. In the present study, we compared two commercially available assays for HCV genotyping: the reverse hybridization based Innogenetics INNO-LiPA HCV II and the direct sequencing by TRUGENE assay. The study included 31 HCV-RNA positive Egyptian patients; 18 patients with chronic active hepatitis, 8 with HCC, and 5 with cirrhosis. Using the TRUGENE genotyping test, all the samples had genotype 4 (100%) and subtyped as 4a in 18/31(58%), 4c in 10/31 (32%), 4e in 1/31 (3%), 4a/c in 1/31 (3%), and 4g in 1/31 (3%). Using the INNO-LiPA assay, 30 samples had genotype 4 (97%), and 1 sample had genotype 1e (3%). One sample showed mixed infection with type 4f and type 1. Only six samples were subtypable by INNO-LiPA, three were genotype 4c/d, and the other three were 4f, 4e, and 1e. Seven samples gave reactivity in the INNO-LiPA of lines 5, 6, 16, 17, 18, which are considered untypable by the interpretation chart but considered to be a rare HCV genotype 4 by the manufacturer. At the genotype level, there was a 97% concordance between TRUGENE sequencing and INNO-LiPA, but at the subtype level the concordance rate was 3% only. We conclude that the TRUGENE genotyping assay is a reliable test for HCV genotyping for the detection of major types and subtypes detection, while INNO-LiPA is a good test at the genotype level but unreliable for subtyping especially in the Egyptian population. This is mainly due to the high diversity of genotype 4, which is the most prevalent genotype in Egypt.

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