The impact of long-term oral exposure to low doses of acrylamide on the hematological indicators, immune functions, and splenic tissue architecture in rats.

Citation:
Hashem, M. M., K. Abo-EL-Sooud, Y. M. Abd El-Hakim, Y. A. - H. Badr, A. E. El-Metwally, and A. Bahy-EL-Dien, "The impact of long-term oral exposure to low doses of acrylamide on the hematological indicators, immune functions, and splenic tissue architecture in rats.", International immunopharmacology, vol. 105, pp. 108568, 2022.

Abstract:

There is a global increase in daily dietary intake of acrylamide (ACR) owing to its presence in various foods. However, several toxicological issues are still unclear, particularly after oral exposure to low doses for long durations. As a result, the objective of this research was to investigate the effects of giving male Wistar rats two dosages of ACR (1 or 2 mg/kg b.wt.) via oral gavage once a day for 90 days on blood components, immune markers, and splenic tissue. The results revealed that leukopenia, lymphocytopenia, eosinophilia, and thrombocytopenia were all found to be ACR dose-dependent. In addition, ACR-treated rats had considerably higher IgG and IgM levels. Following ACR exposure, phagocytic activity, lysozyme, and nitric oxide levels were significantly reduced. In ACR-exposed rats, there was a significant reduction in lymphocyte proliferation but an increase in LDH activity. Both splenic tissue and bone marrow showed a variety of degenerative changes. There was a significant increase in CD4 and CD8 immunolabeling. Rats exposed to ACR at both levels showed a significant rise in comet variables. Overall, our findings suggested that long-term exposure to ACR could cause hematological disorders, DNA damage, and disturbances of immune functions.