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Abo-EL-Sooud, K., G. A. Swielim, S. M. EL-Gammal, and M. N. Ramsis, "Comparative Pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of marbofloxacin in geese (Anser Anser domesticus) after two sites of intramuscular administrations.", Journal of veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics, vol. 43, issue 4, pp. 313-318, 2020. Abstract

The pharmacokinetics of marbofloxacin (MAR) was compared in geese (Anser Anser domesticus) after single intravenous (IV) and intramuscular (IM) (thigh and pectoral muscles) administrations of 5 mg/kg. Serum concentrations of MAR were determined with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Serum MAR concentrations versus time were analyzed by a noncompartmental method. After IV administration, MAR showed high volume of distribution at steady state (V ) of 5.24 ± 1.08 L/kg. The serum body clearance (Cl) and elimination half-life (T λz) of MAR were 0.79 ± 0.07 L hr  kg and 6.94 ± 1.12 hr, respectively. The peak of MAR serum concentrations C achieved at one and 0.50 hr after thigh and pectoral IM sites of injections, respectively, were 1.20 and 0.91 μg/ml. Significant differences were found in the mean absorption time (MAT), the systemic bioavailability (F%), and elimination parameters of MAR between two sites of injections, indicating that the absorption was fairly slow and complete after thigh IM injection. The pharmacokinetics of MAR in geese diverged according to the site of IM injection following a parallel study design. We recommend the thigh muscle as IM site of injection to obtain maximum concentrations of the administered drug in geese.

Abd-Elhakim, Y. M., M. M. M. Hashem, K. Abo-EL-Sooud, H. A. Ali, A. Anwar, A. E. El-Metwally, E. A. Mahmoud, and G. G. Moustafa, "Involvement of tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon gamma-γ, and interleukins 1β, 6, and 10 in immunosuppression due to long-term exposure to five common food preservatives in rats.", Gene, pp. 144590, 2020. Abstract

BACKGROUND: /Aims Food preservatives are abundant in many products in the human environment. However, little is known about the impact of many food preservatives on the immune system and the immune related genes. Hence, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of five widespread food preservatives, including butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), potassium sorbate (PS), sodium benzoate (SB), boric acid (BA), and calcium propionate (CP), on haemato-immune functions.

METHOD: Sixty Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to groups orally administered water (control), BHA (0.09 mg/kg), PS (4.5 mg/kg), SB (0.9 mg/kg), BA (0.16 mg/kg) or CP (0.18 mg/kg) for 90 consecutive days. Leukogram and erythrogram profiles were assessed. Nitric oxide and immunoglobulin levels together with phagocytic and lysozyme activities were estimated. Histologic examinations and histomorphometric analysis of splenic tissues were performed. Variations in the mRNA expression levels of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interferon gamma (IFNγ), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and IL-10 were assessed.

RESULTS: Anemic conditions, thrombocytopenia, leucocytopaenia simultaneous with lymphocytopaenia, monocytopenia, and esinopenia have been obvious following long term exposure to the tested food additives. Prominent exhaustion was noted in immunoglobulin and NO levels and in lysozyme and phagocytic activities. IFNγ, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10 were obviously upregulated in the groups exposed to food preservatives.

CONCLUSION: These results confirmed that continued exposure to high levels of BHA, PS, SB, BA, and CP has haematotoxic and immunotoxic effects. Furthermore, these adverse effects are mediated by cytokine production.

Hashem, M. M., K. Abo-EL-Sooud, Y. M. Abd-Elhakim, Y. A. - H. Badr, A. E. El-Metwally, and A. Bahy-EL-Dien, "The long-term oral exposure to titanium dioxide impaired immune functions and triggered cytotoxic and genotoxic impacts in rats.", Journal of trace elements in medicine and biology : organ of the Society for Minerals and Trace Elements (GMS), vol. 60, pp. 126473, 2020. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Titanium dioxide "TiO, E171″ is a widely used food additive that exists in various everyday food products all over the world together with vast applications in cosmetics and industry. However, many toxicological aspects particularly following oral exposure still unclear.

METHODS: Hence, this study was planned to examine the effect of oral exposure of male Wistar rats to two doses of TiO (20 or 40 mg/kg b.wt.) through oral gavage once daily for 90 consecutive days on the blood components, immunity, cytotoxic, and genotoxic indicators.

RESULTS: A dose-dependent leukopenia, eosinophilia, neutrophilia, and thrombocytopenia were noted. Also, the immunoglobins G (IgG) and IgM were significantly elevated in TiO treated rats. The phagocytic activities, lysozyme, nitric oxide, and immunoglobulin levels were significantly depleted following TiO exposure. A significantly reduced lymphocyte proliferation but elevated LDH activity was prominent in TiO treated rats. Different pathological perturbations were observed in both splenic tissue and bone marrow. A marked increase in CD4 and CD8 immunolabeling was evident. A significant increase in the comet variables was recorded in response to the exposure of rats to the increasing level of TiO at both levels.

CONCLUSION: Overall, these results indicated that TiO could induce hematotoxicity, genotoxic, and immunotoxic alterations with exposure for long durations.

Bahr, M., M. Amer, K. Abo-EL-Sooud, A. Abdallah, and O. El-Tookhy, "Preservation Techniques of Stem Cells Extracellular Vesicles: A Gate for manufacturing of clinical grade therapeutic-Extracellular Vesicles and long-term Clinical trials.", International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine, vol. 8, issue 1, pp. 1-8, 2020. preservation_techniques_of_stem_cells.pdf
Hashem, M. M., Y. M. Abd-Elhakim, K. Abo-EL-Sooud, and M. M. E. Eleiwa, "Embryotoxic and Teratogenic Effects of Tartrazine in Rats.", Toxicological research, vol. 35, issue 1, pp. 75-81, 2019 Jan. Abstract

Tartrazine (TAZ) is one of the most commonly used artificial dyes for foods and drugs. We determined the effect of TAZ on fetal development by examining morphological, visceral, and skeletal malformations in rat fetuses following daily oral administration of TAZ to pregnant Wistar rats at the 6th-15th day of gestation. TAZ at 0.45 and 4.5 mg/kg induced 6.0 and 7.1% fetal resorptions, as well as 10.0 and 10.5% fetal mortality, respectively. Fetal body weight and length were significantly lower in the groups treated with TAZ at 0.45 (3.97 ± 0.21 g and 27.3 ± 0.54 mm, respectively) and 4.5 mg/kg (3.48 ± 0.15 g and 23.22 ± 1.02 mm, respectively) than in the control group (4.0 ± 0.15 g and 30.01 ± 0.42 mm, respectively). TAZ at 0.45 and 4.5 mg/kg induced hepatic damage (20 and 33.3%, respectively), dark brown pigmentation due to hemosiderin in the splenic parenchyma (16.7 and 21.7%, respectively), as well as destructed and necrotic renal tubules (16.7 and 26.7%, respectively) in the fetuses. Moreover, TAZ at 0.45 and 4.5 mg/kg caused one or more missing coccygeal vertebrae (20 and 40%, respectively), missing sternebrae (6 and 10%, respectively), missing hind limbs (24 and 4%, respectively), and irregular ribs (16 and 20, respectively) in the fetuses. We concluded that TAZ has embryotoxic and teratogenic potentials in rats.

Abo-EL-Sooud, K., M. M. Hashem, Y. M. Abd-Elhakim, G. M. Kamel, M. M. E. Eleiwa, and A. Q. Gab-Allaha, "Effect of sodium nitrite exposure on the immune responses against of rift valley fever vaccine in mice ", International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences , vol. 119, issue 7, pp. 28-31, 2019.
Atef, M., Abo-Baker YI EL-Gendi, N. A. Afifi, K. Abo-EL-Sooud, and H. Y. El-Zorba, "The influence of flunixin on the elimination and milk residual patterns of oxytetracycline in dairy goats", Veterinarski Arhiv, vol. 89, issue 2, pp. 169-182, 2019.
Abd-Elhakim, Y. M., G. G. Moustafa, M. M. Hashem, H. A. Ali, K. Abo-EL-Sooud, and A. E. El-Metwally, "Influence of the long-term exposure to tartrazine and chlorophyll on the fibrogenic signalling pathway in liver and kidney of rats: the expression patterns of collagen 1-α, TGFβ-1, fibronectin, and caspase-3 genes.", Environmental science and pollution research international, vol. 26, issue 12, pp. 12368–12378, 2019. Abstract

Colouring agents are highly present in diverse products in the human environment. We aimed to elucidate the fibrogenic cascade triggered by the food dyes tartrazine and chlorophyll. Rats were orally given distilled water, tenfold of the acceptable daily intake of tartrazine, or chlorophyll for 90 consecutive days. Tartrazine-treated rats displayed a significant rise (p < 0.05) in the mRNA levels and immunohistochemical localization of the renal and hepatic fibrotic markers collagen 1-α, TGFβ-1, and fibronectin and the apoptotic marker caspase-3. Moreover, a significant increment (p < 0.05) in the levels of AST, ALP, creatinine, and urea was evident in both experimental groups but more significant differences were noticed in the tartrazine group. Furthermore, we found a marked increment in the MDA level and significant declines (p < 0.05) in the levels of the SOD, CAT, and GSH enzymes in the kidney and liver from tartrazine-treated rats. The histological investigation reinforced the aforementioned data, revealing hepatocytes with fibrous connective tissue proliferation, apoptotic hepatocytes and periportal fibrosis with tubular necrosis, and shrunken glomeruli and interstitial fibrous tissue proliferation. We concluded that, even at the exposure to high concentrations for long durations, chlorophyll exhibited a lower propensity to induce fibrosis, apoptosis, and histopathological perturbations than tartrazine.

Abo-EL-Sooud, K., M. M. Hashem, Y. A. Badr, M. M. E. Eleiwa, A. Q. Gab-Allaha, Y. M. Abd-Elhakim, and A. Bahy-EL-Dien, "Assessment of hepato-renal damage and genotoxicity induced by long-term exposure to five permitted food additives in rats.", Environmental science and pollution research international, vol. 25, issue 26, pp. 26341-26350, 2018 Sep. Abstract

The present study assessed the long-term daily administration of benzoic acid (BA), potassium sorbate (PS), chlorophyll (CPL), tartrazine (TAZ), and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) on hepato-renal changes and DNA damage in rats. Animals were orally administered with the 10 times of the acceptable daily intake (ADI) from each tested substance daily for 60 consecutive days. Blood, liver, and kidney samples were collected to evaluate hematological, biochemical, histopathological, and genotoxic alterations. The extent of liver and kidney damage was evaluated by comet assay and histopathologically. Significant reduction of leukocyte numbers and lymphocytes % in CPL- and TAZ-treated rats. However, significant increases in platelet count in all treated groups after 60 days were detected. The levels of serum transaminases enzymes (ALT, AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and creatinine were significantly increased in all treatments except with BHA group, but no substantial differences were found in urea after 60 days. Aside from BHA, results of DNA damage revealed significant increases in tailed nuclei, tail moment, DNA% in the tail, and tail length in liver and kidney at different degrees. Moreover, the histopathological figures of liver and kidneys affirmed destructive and degenerative changes. The study indicates that most of the tested food additives may provoke genotoxicity and hepato-nephropathy, which could be serious for human health. Therefore, it is necessary to be informed about the hazardous effects of food additives and more attention should be focused towards using natural substitutes.

Abo-EL-Sooud, K., M. M. Hashem, Y. M. Abd ElHakim, G. M. Kamel, and A. Q. Gab-Allaha, "Effect of butylated hydroxyl toluene on the immune response of Rift Valley fever vaccine in a murine model.", International immunopharmacology, vol. 62, pp. 165-169, 2018 Sep. Abstract

The present study was planned to examine the effect of butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT) on the immune response of Rift Valley fever vaccine (RVFV) in Swiss mice. Animals were divided into four equal groups. The first group was kept as negative control. The 2nd group was orally administrated with the acceptable daily intake (ADI) of BHT 0.3 mg/kg b.wt. daily for 21 days and the 3rd group were vaccinated only by inactivated RVFV at a dose of 0.2 ml I/P two times. The 4th group was orally administrated BHT as in the 2nd group and vaccinated by inactivated RVFV as in the 4th group. Blood samples were collected from all groups two weeks from booster vaccination. The cellular immunity was determined by leucocytic indices and the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) whereas, humoral immunity was evaluated with IgG antibodies titer using enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA) test, serum neutralization test (SNT) and challenge test. BHT induced leucopenia, neutrophilia and marked lymphocytopenia in both non-vaccinated and vaccinated mice. Moreover, BHT significantly decreased the efficiency of vaccination by inducing 70% cytopathic effect (CPE) in the infected cell cultures and increasing the ED value of RVFV vaccine. The present study indicates that BHT possesses a potential for decreasing both cellular and humoral mediated mechanisms.

Abd-Elhakim, Y. M., M. M. Hashem, A. Anwar, A. E. El-Metwally, K. Abo-EL-Sooud, G. G. Moustafa, S. M. Mouneir, and H. A. Ali, "Effects of the food additives sodium acid pyrophosphate, sodium acetate, and citric acid on hemato-immunological pathological biomarkers in rats: Relation to PPAR-α, PPAR-γ and tnfα signaling pathway.", Environmental toxicology and pharmacology, vol. 62, pp. 98-106, 2018 Sep. Abstract

The food additives sodium acid pyrophosphate (SAPP), sodium acetate (SA), and citric acid (CA) were evaluated for their hemato-immunotoxic effects. Forty adult Sprague-Dawley rats were distributed into four groups and were orally administered water, SAPP (12.6 mg/kg), CA (180 mg/kg), or SA (13.5 mg /kg) daily for 90 days. Erythrogram and leukogram profiles were evaluated. The levels of lysozyme, nitric oxide, immunoglobulin, and phagocytic activity were measured. Histologic and immunohistochemical evaluations of splenic tissues were performed. Changes in the mRNA expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α and γ (PPAR-α and PPAR-γ), and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) genes were assessed. A significant leukopenic condition was observed with SAPP, while CA induced marked leukocytosis, and SA showed a lymphocytosis condition. Both the innate and humoral parameters were significantly depressed. Various pathological lesions were observed, including diffuse hyperplasia of the red pulp, depletion of the white pulp, and capsular and parenchymal fibrosis. A marked decrease in CD3 T-lymphocyte and CD20 B-lymphocyte immunolabeling in rats treated with SAPP and SA was evident. Marked downregulation of PPAR-α and PPAR-γ together with upregulation of TNF-α was recorded. These results indicate that high doses of SAPP, SA and CA exert hematotoxic and immunotoxic effects with long-term exposure.

Abd-Elhakim, Y. M., M. M. Hashem, A. E. El-Metwally, A. Anwar, K. Abo-EL-Sooud, G. G. Moustafa, and H. A. Ali, "Comparative haemato-immunotoxic impacts of long-term exposure to tartrazine and chlorophyll in rats.", International immunopharmacology, vol. 63, pp. 145-154, 2018 Oct. Abstract

The haemato-immunotoxic effects of the food colourants tartrazine and chlorophyll were evaluated. Thirty adult Sprague Dawley rats were distributed into three groups and orally administered water, tartrazine (1.35 mg/kg), or chlorophyll (1.35 mg/kg) daily for 90 days. Erythrogram and leukogram profiles were evaluated. The lysozyme, nitric oxide, phagocytic activity, and immunoglobulin levels were measured. Histological and immunohistochemical evaluations of splenic tissues were conducted. Changes in the interleukin (IL) 1β, 6, and 10 mRNA expression levels were assessed. In the tartrazine-treated rats, a significant anaemic condition and marked leukocytosis were observed. Both the innate and humoural parameters were significantly depressed. Different pathological lesions were observed, including red pulp haemorrhages, vacuolation of some splenic cells, focal hyperplasia of the white pulp, and capsular and parenchymal fibrosis. A marked increase in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (e-NOS) immunolabelling was evident. Marked upregulation of IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10 was recorded. In contrast, the chlorophyll-treated rats showed minimal haemato-immune responses. These results indicate that tartrazine exerts haematotoxic and immunotoxic effects following long-term exposure, whereas chlorophyll is a less hazardous food colourant.

Abo-EL-Sooud, K., "Ethnoveterinary perspectives and promising future.", International journal of veterinary science and medicine, vol. 6, issue 1, pp. 1-7, 2018 Jun. Abstract

In this review, we have discussed the recent potential effects of plants and their derivatives in treating diseases of veterinary importance in livestock. The therapeutic value of these natural products depends upon their bioactive metabolites that are developed and isolated from crude plants, thus produced a selective action on the body. The crises of drug resistance in most pathogenic bacteria and parasites that cause economic loss in animals necessitate developing new sources for drugs to overcome therapeutic failure. We summarized the different antibacterial and antiparasitic plants with their bioactive compounds that have widely used in animals. Finally, the environmental friendly feed additives that may be used as alternatives to an antibiotic growth promoter for broiler chickens were illustrated.

Abd-Elhakim, Y. M., A. Anwar, M. M. Hashem, G. G. Moustafa, and K. Abo-EL-Sooud, "Sodium Acetate, Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate, and Citric Acid Impacts on Isolated Peripheral Lymphocyte Viability, Proliferation, and DNA Damage.", Journal of biochemical and molecular toxicology, vol. 32, issue 8, pp. e22171, 2018 Aug. Abstract

The present study examined the impacts of sodium acetate (SA), sodium acid pyrophosphate (SAPP), and citric acid (CA) on the viability, proliferation, and DNA damage of isolated lymphocytes in vitro. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assays were adopted to evaluate cell viability, while comet assay was employed to assess the genotoxic effects. The cells were incubated with different levels of SA (50, 100, and 200 mM), SAPP (25, 50, and 100 mM/L), or CA (100, 200, and 300 μg/mL). The lymphocytes treated with the tested food additives showed concentration-dependent decreases in both cell viability and proliferation. A concentration-dependent increase in LDH release was also observed. The comet assay results indicated that SA, SAPP, and CA increased DNA damage percentage, tail DNA percentage, tail length, and tail moment in a concentration-dependent manner. The current results showed that SA, SAPP, and CA are cytotoxic and genotoxic to isolated lymphocytes in vitro.

Abdel-Daim, M. M., K. Abo-EL-Sooud, L. Aleya, S. G. Bungau, A. Najda, and R. Saluja, "Alleviation of Drugs and Chemicals Toxicity: Biomedical Value of Antioxidants ", Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, vol. 2018, issue 6276438, 2018.
Khaled, A. - E. L. - S., F. A. Ahmed, S. A. El-Toumy, H. S. Yaecob, and H. M. ELTantawy, "Phytochemical, anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcerogenic and hypoglycemic activities of Periploca angustifolia L extracts in rats", Clinical Phytoscience, vol. 4, issue 27, pp. 1-8, 2018.
Abo-EL-Sooud, K., A. M. Soliman, A. Goudah, and S. F. Sobhy, "Comparative serum concentrations and pharmacokinetics of levofloxacin and danofloxacin in broiler chickens", Wulfenia Journal, vol. 24, issue 1, pp. 225-237, 2017. reprint.pdf
Abo-El- Sooud, K.:, S. M. Mouneir, and M. - A. F. Fahmy, "Curcumin ameliorates the absolute and relative bioavailabilities of marbofloxacin after oral administrations in broiler chickens", Wulfenia, vol. 24, issue 3, pp. 284-297, 2017. curcumin_reprint.pdf
Khaled, A. - E. L. - S., "Hypnotic and general anaesthetic effects of Citrus aurantium L. oil on rats", 3rd Global Summit on Herbals & Traditional Medicine, Osaka, Japan, 18-20 October, pp. 8, 2017.
Abdel-Daim, M. M., S. M. Aly, K. Abo-EL-Sooud, M. Giorgi, and S. Ursoniu, "Role of Natural Products in Ameliorating Drugs and Chemicals Toxicity.", Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM, vol. 2016, pp. 7879406, 2016.
Abo-EL-Sooud, K., G. A. Swielim, Y. R. Wally, and S. M. EL-Gammal, "Comparative biliary and serum kinetics of doxycycline after oral and intramuscular routes with special reference to its unique entero-hepatic circulation in turkeys", Wulfenia Journal, vol. 23, issue 9, pp. 206-219, 2016.
El-Kousy, S. M., A. K. EL-Sooud, K. F. Amer, S. E. - T. A., and A. R. Hassan, "Phytochemical and Pharmaco-Toxicological Assessment of Hydro Ethanolic Extract of Taverniera aegyptiaca Boiss", International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research, vol. 8, issue 12, pp. 1907-1912, 2016.
Mahmoud, M. R., F. A. Ahmed, K. Abo-EL-Sooud, S. A. El-Toumy, H. S. Yaecob, and H. M. ELTantawy, "Preliminary phytochemical screening and diuretic activity of Periploca angustifolia L (wild plant)", Int J Pharma Sci., vol. 6, issue 2, pp. 1454-1458, 2016.
Goudah, A., Abo-EL-Sooud, K., and M. A. Yousef, "Acute and subchronic toxicity assessment model of Ferula assa-foetida gum in rodents,", Veterinary World , vol. 8, issue (5), pp. 584-589., 2015.
Abo-EL-Sooud, K., M. M. Hashem, A. Q. Gab-Allaha, and A. Bahy-EL-Dein, "Correlation between chemical composition and antinanobacterial activity of three essential oils of Lamiaceae family", Wulfenia Journal, vol. 22, issue 10, pp. 2-14, 2015.