Atef, M., A. baker ELGendi, A. M. Amer, B. A. ElRazzk, K. Abo-EL-Sooud, and S. Ibrahim, "Antioxidant, hepatoprotective and in vitro cytotoxic activities of Cichorium intybus L. extract. ", Adv. Anim. Vet. Sci. , vol. 9, issue 1, pp. 137-142, 2021.
Hashem, M. M., K. Abo-EL-Sooud, Y. M. Abd El-Hakim, Y. A. - H. Badr, A. E. El-Metwally, and A. Bahy-EL-Dien, "The impact of long-term oral exposure to low doses of acrylamide on the hematological indicators, immune functions, and splenic tissue architecture in rats.", International immunopharmacology, vol. 105, pp. 108568, 2022. Abstract

There is a global increase in daily dietary intake of acrylamide (ACR) owing to its presence in various foods. However, several toxicological issues are still unclear, particularly after oral exposure to low doses for long durations. As a result, the objective of this research was to investigate the effects of giving male Wistar rats two dosages of ACR (1 or 2 mg/kg b.wt.) via oral gavage once a day for 90 days on blood components, immune markers, and splenic tissue. The results revealed that leukopenia, lymphocytopenia, eosinophilia, and thrombocytopenia were all found to be ACR dose-dependent. In addition, ACR-treated rats had considerably higher IgG and IgM levels. Following ACR exposure, phagocytic activity, lysozyme, and nitric oxide levels were significantly reduced. In ACR-exposed rats, there was a significant reduction in lymphocyte proliferation but an increase in LDH activity. Both splenic tissue and bone marrow showed a variety of degenerative changes. There was a significant increase in CD4 and CD8 immunolabeling. Rats exposed to ACR at both levels showed a significant rise in comet variables. Overall, our findings suggested that long-term exposure to ACR could cause hematological disorders, DNA damage, and disturbances of immune functions.

Abd-Elhakim, Y. M., M. M. Hashem, K. Abo-EL-Sooud, B. A. Hassan, K. M. Elbohi, and A. A. Al-Sagheer, "Effects of Co-Exposure of Nanoparticles and Metals on Different Organisms: A Review.", Toxics, vol. 9, issue 11, 2021. Abstract

Wide nanotechnology applications and the commercialization of consumer products containing engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) have increased the release of nanoparticles (NPs) to the environment. Titanium dioxide, aluminum oxide, zinc oxide, and silica NPs are widely implicated NPs in industrial, medicinal, and food products. Different types of pollutants usually co-exist in the environment. Heavy metals (HMs) are widely distributed pollutants that could potentially co-occur with NPs in the environment. Similar to what occurs with NPs, HMs accumulation in the environment results from anthropogenic activities, in addition to some natural sources. These pollutants remain in the environment for long periods and have an impact on several organisms through different routes of exposure in soil, water, and air. The impact on complex systems results from the interactions between NPs and HMs and the organisms. This review describes the outcomes of simultaneous exposure to the most commonly found ENMs and HMs, particularly on soil and aquatic organisms.

Ramsis, M. N., S. E. L. M. -Gammal, K. Abo-EL-Sooud, and G. A. Swielim, "Anatomical studies on the arterial blood supply of the pelvic limb of geese", Advances in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, vol. 9, issue 4, pp. 604-614, 2021. aavs_9_4_604-614.pdf
Motwadie, M. E., M. M. Hashem, K. Abo-EL-Sooud, Y. M. Abd-Elhakim, A. E. El-Metwally, and H. A. Ali, "Modulation of immune functions, inflammatory response, and cytokine production following long-term oral exposure to three food additives; thiabendazole, monosodium glutamate, and brilliant blue in rats.", International immunopharmacology, vol. 98, pp. 107902, 2021. Abstract

The food additives thiabendazole (TBZ), monosodium glutamate (MSG), and brilliant blue (BB) are commonly used in many daily-consumed food products worldwide. They are widely used in major agricultural and industrial applications. Yet, many of its toxicological aspects are still unclear, especially immune modulation. This research was therefore intended to investigate the effects of male Wistar rats' daily oral exposure for 90 days to TBZ (10 mg/kg b.wt), MSG (20 mg/kg b.wt), or BB (1.2 mg/kg b.wt) on the blood cells, immunity, and inflammatory indicators. The three tested food additives showed varying degrees of hematological alterations. Initially, megaloblastic anemia and thrombocytopenia were evident with the three tested food additives. At the same time, TBZ showed no significant changes in the leukogram element except eosinopenia. MSG induced leukopenia, lymphocytopenia, neutrophilia, and eosinophilia. BB evoked neutrophilia and lymphopenia. The immunoglobins M (IgM) and IgG were significantly reduced with the three tested food additives. In contrast, lysozyme and nitric oxide levels were elevated. A reduced considerably lymphocyte proliferation was detected with TBZ and MSG exposure without affecting the phagocytic activity. Various pathologic disturbances in splenic tissues have been detected. An obvious increase in CD4 but a lessening in CD8 immunolabeling was evident in TBZ and MSG groups. The cytokines, including interferon-gamma, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukin 1β, 6, 10, and 13, were significantly upregulated in the spleen of rats exposed to TBZ, MSG, and BB. These results concluded that TBZ, MSG, and BB negatively affect hematological parameters, innate and humoral immune functions together with inflammatory responses. TBZ achieved the maximal negative impacts followed by MSG and finally with BB. Given the prevalence of these food additives, TBZ and MSG should be limited to a minimal volume use, or natural food additives should be used instead.

Khattab, A. A., A. M. Tawfek, K. Abo-EL-Sooud, K. A. Ahmed, A. E. N. El-Gendy, and A. R. Ahmed, "Elettaria cardamomum essential oil rescues paracetamol-induced hepatorenal damage via modulating oxidative stress in rats.", Adv. Anim. Vet. Sci, vol. 8(S2), issue 24, pp. 33, 2020.
Abo-EL-Sooud, K., G. A. Swielim, S. M. EL-Gammal, and M. N. Ramsis, "Comparative Pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of marbofloxacin in geese (Anser Anser domesticus) after two sites of intramuscular administrations.", Journal of veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics, vol. 43, issue 4, pp. 313-318, 2020. Abstract

The pharmacokinetics of marbofloxacin (MAR) was compared in geese (Anser Anser domesticus) after single intravenous (IV) and intramuscular (IM) (thigh and pectoral muscles) administrations of 5 mg/kg. Serum concentrations of MAR were determined with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Serum MAR concentrations versus time were analyzed by a noncompartmental method. After IV administration, MAR showed high volume of distribution at steady state (V ) of 5.24 ± 1.08 L/kg. The serum body clearance (Cl) and elimination half-life (T λz) of MAR were 0.79 ± 0.07 L hr  kg and 6.94 ± 1.12 hr, respectively. The peak of MAR serum concentrations C achieved at one and 0.50 hr after thigh and pectoral IM sites of injections, respectively, were 1.20 and 0.91 μg/ml. Significant differences were found in the mean absorption time (MAT), the systemic bioavailability (F%), and elimination parameters of MAR between two sites of injections, indicating that the absorption was fairly slow and complete after thigh IM injection. The pharmacokinetics of MAR in geese diverged according to the site of IM injection following a parallel study design. We recommend the thigh muscle as IM site of injection to obtain maximum concentrations of the administered drug in geese.

Abd-Elhakim, Y. M., M. M. M. Hashem, K. Abo-EL-Sooud, H. A. Ali, A. Anwar, A. E. El-Metwally, E. A. Mahmoud, and G. G. Moustafa, "Involvement of tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon gamma-γ, and interleukins 1β, 6, and 10 in immunosuppression due to long-term exposure to five common food preservatives in rats.", Gene, pp. 144590, 2020. Abstract

BACKGROUND: /Aims Food preservatives are abundant in many products in the human environment. However, little is known about the impact of many food preservatives on the immune system and the immune related genes. Hence, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of five widespread food preservatives, including butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), potassium sorbate (PS), sodium benzoate (SB), boric acid (BA), and calcium propionate (CP), on haemato-immune functions.

METHOD: Sixty Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to groups orally administered water (control), BHA (0.09 mg/kg), PS (4.5 mg/kg), SB (0.9 mg/kg), BA (0.16 mg/kg) or CP (0.18 mg/kg) for 90 consecutive days. Leukogram and erythrogram profiles were assessed. Nitric oxide and immunoglobulin levels together with phagocytic and lysozyme activities were estimated. Histologic examinations and histomorphometric analysis of splenic tissues were performed. Variations in the mRNA expression levels of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interferon gamma (IFNγ), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and IL-10 were assessed.

RESULTS: Anemic conditions, thrombocytopenia, leucocytopaenia simultaneous with lymphocytopaenia, monocytopenia, and esinopenia have been obvious following long term exposure to the tested food additives. Prominent exhaustion was noted in immunoglobulin and NO levels and in lysozyme and phagocytic activities. IFNγ, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10 were obviously upregulated in the groups exposed to food preservatives.

CONCLUSION: These results confirmed that continued exposure to high levels of BHA, PS, SB, BA, and CP has haematotoxic and immunotoxic effects. Furthermore, these adverse effects are mediated by cytokine production.

Hashem, M. M., K. Abo-EL-Sooud, Y. M. Abd-Elhakim, Y. A. - H. Badr, A. E. El-Metwally, and A. Bahy-EL-Dien, "The long-term oral exposure to titanium dioxide impaired immune functions and triggered cytotoxic and genotoxic impacts in rats.", Journal of trace elements in medicine and biology : organ of the Society for Minerals and Trace Elements (GMS), vol. 60, pp. 126473, 2020. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Titanium dioxide "TiO, E171″ is a widely used food additive that exists in various everyday food products all over the world together with vast applications in cosmetics and industry. However, many toxicological aspects particularly following oral exposure still unclear.

METHODS: Hence, this study was planned to examine the effect of oral exposure of male Wistar rats to two doses of TiO (20 or 40 mg/kg b.wt.) through oral gavage once daily for 90 consecutive days on the blood components, immunity, cytotoxic, and genotoxic indicators.

RESULTS: A dose-dependent leukopenia, eosinophilia, neutrophilia, and thrombocytopenia were noted. Also, the immunoglobins G (IgG) and IgM were significantly elevated in TiO treated rats. The phagocytic activities, lysozyme, nitric oxide, and immunoglobulin levels were significantly depleted following TiO exposure. A significantly reduced lymphocyte proliferation but elevated LDH activity was prominent in TiO treated rats. Different pathological perturbations were observed in both splenic tissue and bone marrow. A marked increase in CD4 and CD8 immunolabeling was evident. A significant increase in the comet variables was recorded in response to the exposure of rats to the increasing level of TiO at both levels.

CONCLUSION: Overall, these results indicated that TiO could induce hematotoxicity, genotoxic, and immunotoxic alterations with exposure for long durations.