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Baky, M. H., I. M. Kamal, L. A. Wessjohann, and M. A. Farag, "Assessment of metabolome diversity in black and white pepper in response to autoclaving using MS- and NMR-based metabolomics and in relation to its remote and direct antimicrobial effects against food-borne pathogens.", RSC advances, vol. 14, issue 15, pp. 10799-10813, 2024. Abstract

L. (black and white peppercorn) is one of the most common culinary spices used worldwide. The current study aims to dissect pepper metabolome using H-NMR targeting of its major primary and secondary metabolites. Eighteen metabolites were identified with piperine detected in black and white pepper at 20.2 and 23.9 μg mg, respectively. Aroma profiling using HS-SPME coupled to GC-MS analysis and in the context of autoclave treatment led to the detection of a total of 52 volatiles with an abundance of β-caryophyllene at 82% and 59% in black and white pepper, respectively. Autoclaving of black and white pepper revealed improvement of pepper aroma as manifested by an increase in oxygenated compounds' level. remote antimicrobial activity against food-borne Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria revealed the highest activity against (VP-MIC 16.4 and 12.9 mg mL) and a direct effect against at 11.6 mg mL for both white and black pepper.

Kamal, I. M., A. Zayed, T. F. Eissa, and M. A. Farag, "Aroma-based discrimination of Egyptian versus Indian guava fruits and in response to probiotics as analyzed via SPME/GC-MS and chemometric tools.", Scientific reports, vol. 13, issue 1, pp. 18420, 2023. Abstract

Guava tree (Psidium guajava L., Myrtaceae) is an economic grown worldwide, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions. Guavas encompass numerous cultivars (cvs.) that were discriminated in previous studies based on leaf morphological features and profile of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Nevertheless, fruit VOCs have also shown outstanding potential for discrimination of other plant taxa, which has not been utilized in guava. Hence, the current study investigates the various guava cvs. harvested from India and Egypt. A total of 5 samples were analyzed by solid phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Results led to the detection of 42 VOCs belonging to aldehydes, alcohols, esters, ketones, aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, in addition to monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. Butylated hydroxytoluene and β-caryophyllene were predominant reaching 77% and 41% in Egyptian and Indian guava, respectively. The impact of probiotic fermentation, i.e., Lactobacillus acidophilus and L. plantarum on aroma profile was not significantly different (p > 0.05). Multivariate data analyses were further applied for samples classification and markers determination, including principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). PCA score plot showed clear segregation of Egyptian from Indian specimens, whereas OPLS-DA revealed that β-caryophyllene was associated with white fruit versus 3-butenyl isothiocyanate and muurolol in red fruit type in the case of Indian guava. The richness of Egyptian guava in butylated hydroxytoluene in addition to the presence of vitamin C may potentiate its antioxidant activity, to be followed in subsequent studies regarding its health effects.

Kamal, I. M., N. F. Abdeltawab, Y. M. Ragab, M. A. Farag, and M. A. Ramadan, "Biodegradation, Decolorization, and Detoxification of Di-Azo Dye Direct Red 81 by Halotolerant, Alkali-Thermo-Tolerant Bacterial Mixed Cultures", Microorganisms, vol. 10, issue 5, pp. 994, 2022.
Farag, M. A., E. U. Dokalahy, T. F. Eissa, I. M. Kamal, and A. Zayed, "Chemometrics-Based Aroma Discrimination of 14 Egyptian Mango Fruits of Different Cultivars and Origins, and Their Response to Probiotics Analyzed via SPME Coupled to GC−MS", ACS Omega, vol. 7, issue 2, pp. 2377-2290, 2022.