Hierarchical routing protocol

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Sharawi, M., I. A. Saroit, E. Emary, and H. El-Mahdy, "Flower Pollination Optimization Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Network Lifetime Global Optimization", International Journal of Soft Computing and Engineering (IJSCE), vol. 4, issue 3, pp. 54-59, 2014. Abstractc2289074314.pdf

As wireless sensor networks still struggling to extend
its lifetime, nodes` clustering and nomination, or selection of
cluster head node are proposed as solution. LEACH protocol is
one of the oldest remarkable clustering approaches that aim to
cluster the network`s nodes and randomly elects a cluster head
for each cluster. It selects cluster heads but it is not responsible
for proper clustering formation. In this paper we use the Flower
Pollination Optimization Algorithm (FPOA) to propose a WSN
energy aware clustering formation model based on the
intra-cluster distances. The objective is to achieve the global
optimization for WSN lifetime. Simulation results and
performance analysis show that applying flower pollination
optimization on WSNs clustering is more efficient. It is
effectively balance power utilization of each sensor node and
hence extends WSN lifetime comparatively with the classical
LEACH approach.