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Mona, H. A. M. D. Y., I. Shaheen, Z. M. El-Gammal, and Y. M. Ramadan, "Detection of Renal Insufficiency in a Cohort of Patients With Beta-thalassemia Major Using Cystatin-C", Pediatric Hematology / Oncology , 2021.
HAMDY, M. O. N. A., I. Shaheen, H. S. E. Din, B. Ali, and O. A. E. Dayem, "Klotho Level as a Marker of Low Bone Mineral Density in Egyptian Sickle Cell Disease Patients", Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology (JPHO), 2021.
Shaheen, I. A., R. Aboukhalil, N. Abulata, Rasha Abdel-Raouf, B. Meligy, and Omnia Abdel-Dayem, "Vitamin D Insufficiency is Not Associated With Pediatric and Adolescent Immune Thrombocytopenia A Study in Conjunction With its Receptor Genetic Polymorphisms", Pediatric Hematology / Oncology , vol. 43, issue 3, pp. 1-4, 2021.
Salah, M., I. Shaheen, P. El-Shanawany, N. E. Saad, R. Saad, M. E. Guibaly, and N. Momen, "Detection of miR-1246, miR-23a and miR-451 in sera of colorectal carcinoma patients: a case-control study in Cairo University hospital", African Health Sciences, vol. 21, issue 3, pp. 1283-1291, 2020.
Draz, I. H., I. A. Shaheen, and E. A. Youssef, "Elevated serum KL-6 in pediatric asthma exacerbation: a proof of alveolar injury", The Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy And Immunology , vol. 18, issue 1, pp. 35-39, 2020.
Shaheen, I. A., M. Khorshied, Rasha Abdel-Raouf, H. Gouda, D. Kamal, N. Abulata, R. Aboukhalil, and B. Meligy, "L-Selectin P213S and Integrin Alpha 2 C807T Genetic Polymorphisms in Pediatric Sickle Cell Disease Patients", Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, 2020.
Draz, I. H., I. A. Shaheen, and E. A. Youssef, "Platelets count and platelets indices; mean platelet volume and plateletcrit in pediatric chronic lung disease", Egyptian Pediatric Association Gazette , 2020.
Ali, D. K., and I. A. M. Shaheen, "The Relation Between Maternal / Neonatal Vitamin D Levels and Early Onset Neonatal Sepsis", American Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 6, issue 1, pp. 46-51, 2020.
., M. E. - M. W., H. M. G.., I. A. Shaheen., W. Edesa., N. M. Hassan., and R. Ramzy, "Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP) gene expression in a cohort of adult Egyptian patients with acute myeloid leukemia", African Health Sciences , vol. 18, issue 4, pp. 958-964, 2018.
ElDanasori, N., N. Abulata, I. A. Shaheen, A. M. ElGendy, and W. El-Khayat, "Thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor gene polymorphism (TAFI1040C/T) in women with recurrent spontaneous abortion", Clin Appl Thromb Hemost., vol. 24, issue 3, pp. 532-535, 2018. AbstractWebsite

Recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) is defined as 3 or more consecutive pregnancy failures. Thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) is a plasma zymogen that regulates both fibrinolysis and inflammation. The TAFI 1040C/T polymorphism could alter the circulating levels of TAFI with a reduced capacity to remove the fibrin clots from the circulation; therefore, it could be considered a molecular risk factor for RSA. The TAFI 1040C/T polymorphism was studied in 50 patients with RSA by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique and compared to 50 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers as a control group to verify its possible association with RSA. In case group, the wild genotype (C/C) and heterozygous genotype (C/T) did not reduce the risk of RSA (odds ratio: 0.368 and 0.767, respectively), even when compared to the number of RSA ( P = .71). A higher frequency of C allele in the control group and a higher frequency of T allele in the case group were observed but with no statistical significance. In conclusion, our study revealed that TAFI 1040C/T could not be considered a molecular predictive factor for RSA in Egyptians.

Elmahgoub, I. R., H. M. Gouda, M. A. Samra, I. A. Shaheen, and A. H. ElMaraashly, "• Polymorphisms of xeroderma pigmentosum genes ( XPC, XPD and XPG) and susceptibility to acute leukemia among a sample of Egyptian patients", Journal of Hematopathology: Journal of Hematopathology, 2017. AbstractWebsite

DNA repair systems play a key role in protecting the DNA from damage caused by different endogenous and environmental factors. Genetic polymorphisms in DNA repair genes may lead to increased cancer susceptibility including leukemia. Due to different environmental genetic interaction among each population, the aim of the current study was to assess the association between three genetic polymorphisms of xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group: XPD (rs13181), XPC (rs2228001), XPG (rs17655) and the susceptibility to Acute Leukemia in Egypt. The present study included 50 patients with acute leukemia, in addition to 100 normal volunteers as control group. Genotyping for the genes was done by PCR- RFLP technique. The study revealed that patients homovariant for XPD had four fold increased risk of developing AML (OR=4.4, p=0.025) either alone or with variant genotypes of XPC and XPG. No statistically significant association was found between neither individual nor combined polymorphisms and disease risk of ALL in this study. Determination of XPD polymorphism could be considered as molecular markers associated with susceptibility to develop AML.

Aboul-Enein, A., A. El-Beshlawy, M. HAMDY, I. Shaheen, Z. El-Saadany, A. Samir, and H. A. El-Samie, "Peripheral expression of hepcidin gene in Egyptian β-thalassemia major.", Gene, vol. Jun 15;564(2), issue (2), pp. 206-9, 2015. Abstract

Iron overload is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in transfusion dependent β-thalassemia major patients. There is a sophisticated balance of body iron metabolism of storage and transport which is regulated by several factors including the peptide hepcidin. Hepcidin is the main iron regulatory molecule; it is secreted mainly by the liver and other tissues including monocytes and lymphocytes. Expression of hepcidin in such cells is unclear and has been studied in few reports with controverted result. Peripheral expression of hepcidin was measured using quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) in 50 β-thalassemia major patients, in addition to 20 healthy volunteers as a control group. Hepcidin levels in β-thalassemia major patients showed statistically significant decrease in comparison to the control group, and was correlated to cardiac iron stores (T2*). However, hepcidin level was not different among the patients according to the HCV status or whether splenectomized or not. In conclusion; peripheral expression of hepcidin, in iron overloaded β-thalassemia major patients, is a reflection of hepatic expression. It can be used as a molecular predictor for the severity of cardiac iron overload and can be used as a future target for therapy in β-thalassemia major patients.

Shiba, H. F., M. K. El-Ghamrawy, I. A. E. - M. Shaheen, R. A. E. - G. Ali, and S. M. Mousa, "Glutathione S-transferase gene polymorphisms (GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1) in Egyptian pediatric patients with sickle cell disease.", Pediatric and developmental pathology : the official journal of the Society for Pediatric Pathology and the Paediatric Pathology Society, vol. 17, issue 4, pp. 265-70, 2014 Jul-Aug. Abstract

Sickle cell disease (SCD) complications are associated with oxidative stress. Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a group of enzymes that protect against oxidative stress. The aims of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 gene polymorphisms among homozygous sickle cell anemia patients and to investigate the possible association between the presence of these polymorphisms and SCD severity and complications. Genotyping the polymorphisms in GSTT1 and GSTM1 genes was performed using the multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. The GSTP1 ILe105Val polymorphism was determined using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. GSTM1 null genotype was significantly associated with increased risk of severe vaso-occlusive crises (VOC) (odds ratio  =  1.52, 95% confidence interval  =  0.42-5.56, P  =  0.005). We found no significant association between GST genotypes and frequency of sickle cell-related pain, transfusion frequency, disease severity, or hydroxyurea treatment. GSTM1 gene polymorphism may be associated with risk of severe VOC among Egyptian SCD patients.

Khorshied, M. M., I. A. M. Shaheen, R. E. Abukhalil, and R. E. Sheir, "Methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphisms in chronic myeloid leukemia: an Egyptian study.", Medical oncology (Northwood, London, England), vol. 31, issue 1, pp. 794, 2014 Jan. Abstract

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene plays a pivotal role in folate metabolism. Several genetic variations in MTHFR gene as MTHFR-C677T and MTHFR-A1298C result in decreased MTHFR activity, which could influence efficient DNA methylation and explain susceptibility to different cancers. The etiology of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is obscure and little is known about individual's susceptibility to CML. In order to assess the influence of these genetic polymorphisms on the susceptibility to CML and its effect on the course of the disease among Egyptians, we performed an age-gender-ethnic matched case-control study. The study included 97 CML patients and 130 healthy controls. Genotyping of MTHFR-C677T and -A1298C was performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique. The results showed no statistical difference in the distribution of MTHFR-C677T and -A1298C polymorphic genotypes between CML patients and controls. The frequency of MTHFR 677-TT homozygous variant was significantly higher in patients with accelerated/blastic transformation phase when compared to those in the chronic phase of the disease. In conclusion, our study revealed that MTHFR-C677T and -A1298C polymorphisms could not be considered as genetic risk factors for CML in Egyptians. However, MTHFR 677-TT homozygous variant might be considered as a molecular predictor for disease progression.

Gouda, H. M., M. M. Khorshied, M. H. E. Sissy, I. A. M. Shaheen, and M. M. A. Mohsen, "Association between matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) promoter polymorphisms and the susceptibility to non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in Egyptians.", Annals of hematology, vol. 93, issue 8, pp. 1313-8, 2014 Aug. Abstract

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are zinc-dependent endopeptidases capable of extracellular matrix degradation. MMP2 is the key molecule that control invasion, tumor growth, and metastasis, and has been associated with poor prognosis in several tumors. Several epidemiological studies have focused on the associations between MMP2 promoter polymorphisms and cancer susceptibility; however, little is known about their role in hematological malignancies. The present study aimed to investigate the association of MMP2 -735C/T and -1306C/T promoter polymorphisms with B-NHL susceptibility and their clinicopathological characteristics. The study included 100 B-NHL patients and 100 healthy controls. Genotyping of MMP2 -735C/T and MMP2 -1306C/T was done by polymerase chain reaction restricted fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique. MMP2 -735C/T heteromutant genotype (CT) was detected in 23 % of patients, and the homomutant genotype (TT) was detected in 7 % of patients. The polymorphic allele, T allele, was associated with susceptibility to B-NHL (OR = 2.8:95 %CI = 1.48-5.28). For MMP2 -1306C/T, the frequencies of the polymorphic variants were 5 % for the heteromutant genotype (CT) and 3 % for the homomutant genotype (TT). The polymorphic allele, T allele, conferred almost fourfold increased risk of B-NHL (OR = 3.8, 95 %CI = 1.05-13.9), and the risk elevated to be almost eight folds when confined to diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) (OR = 7.9, 95 %CI = 1.67-32.27). MMP2 -735C/T polymorphic genotypes were correlated with advanced clinical stages of the disease (stages III and IV). In conclusion, the study revealed that the variant alleles of MMP2 -735C/T and MMP2 -1306C/T can be considered as molecular risk factors for B-NHL among Egyptians.

Shaheen, I. A., S. K. A. Botros, and D. S. Morgan, "Detection of expression of IL-18 and its binding protein in Egyptian pediatric immune thrombocytopenic purpura.", Platelets, vol. 25, issue 3, pp. 193-6, 2014. Abstract

Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is an autoimmune disorder, characterized by dysfunctional cellular immunity including the presence of activated platelet specific autoreactive T cells that recognize and respond to autologous platelet antigens. Autoreactive T cells drive the generation of platelet reactive autoantibodies by B cells as well as T-cytotoxic cell-mediated lysis of platelets. Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is a mediator of T helper type 1 cell responses synergistically with IL-12 that initiate and promote host defense and inflammation. IL-18 has a specific binding protein (IL-18BP) which belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily. In the present study, serum level and messenger RNA( mRNA) expression of IL-18 as well as IL-18BP mRNA expression were measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) of 100 Egyptian pediatric patients with ITP (70 acute and 30 chronic). In addition to this, we recruited 80 healthy volunteers in order to investigate the possible association between the imbalance of IL-18 and IL-18 BP expressions and the pathogenesis of ITP. IL-18 serum level and mRNA expression were not elevated in cases more than in the control group, but IL-18 mRNA was higher in chronic cases when compared to the acute ones (p=0.031) and there was a good negative correlation between the platelet count and serum IL-18. IL-18 BP m-RNA was slightly elevated in cases more than in the control group (95% Confidence interval=1.15-2.01). Our results were not supportive for previous findings of elevated IL18/BP mRNA ratio in ITP patients. This could be referred to the fact that autoimmune diseases are complex genetic disorders, therefore further studies on polymorphisms affecting IL-18 gene expression as well as kinetics of IL-18 expression are required to evaluate the role of interleukin 18 and its binding protein in the pathogenesis of ITP.

S.Mousa, S.Mostafa, I.Shaheen, and E.Elnoshokaty, "Detection of trisomy 4 and 10 in Egyptian pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia", Clin Lab, vol. 60, issue (4), pp. 609-14, 2014. AbstractWebsite

Improvement in cure rates for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has focused attention on better methods of identifying patients with increased or decreased risk of treatment failure. Chromosome aberrations have a major role in pediatric ALL risk assessment. The aim of this work is to detect the frequency of trisomy 4 and 10 in Egyptian pediatric ALL patients and to analyze their possible prognostic significance.
Forty newly diagnosed pediatric ALL patients were subjected to bone marrow aspirate morphological examination and immunophenotyping. Detection of copy number of chromosome 4 and 10 was done using Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) technique using whole chromosome painting probes.
Combined trisomy 4 and 10 was detected in 7 cases (17.5%), all of them were of B-ALL type. Single trisomy 4 or 10 was not detected in any case. Trisomy positive patients had a statistically significant lower total leucocytic count (p = 0.041), higher platelet count (p = 0.018), and lower blast percentage in peripheral blood (p = 0.016) at diagnosis.
Combined trisomy 4 and 10 identifies a group of ALL patients that have good prognostic indicators. Screening of Egyptian pediatric ALL patients for trisomy 4 and 10 may help in "patients' stratification" aiming to develop a risk-adapted therapy in order to minimize therapy related morbidities particularly in children.

Ragab, L. A., M. M. Hamdy, I. A. Shaheen, and R. N. Yassin, "Blood transfusion among thalassemia patients: A single Egyptian center experience.", Asian journal of transfusion science, vol. 7, issue 1, pp. 33-6, 2013 Jan. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Although red cell transfusions are lifesavers for patients with thalassemia, they are responsible for a series of complications and expose the patients to a variety of risks.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 464 Egyptian beta(β) thalassemia major patients whose age ranged between 10 months and 31 years (mean 10.2 ± 6.6 years). All patients were subjected to thorough history taking with special emphasis on blood transfusions regarding rate of blood transfusion, type of received blood, and history of previous transfusion reactions in addition to type of chelation and compliance to iron chelation therapy and history of diabetes. Serum ferritin and pretransfusion hemoglobin assessment were done for all patients.

RESULTS: The mean pretransfusion hemoglobin level was 5.7 ± 1.16 g/dl. Allergic reactions were observed in 3.9% of the patients during the period of the study, while the history of previous allergic reaction was given by 72% of the patients. Deferiprone showed better compliance (58.6%) than deferoxamine (26.3%). The prevalence of diabetes was 10.1% among the studied group. On comparing diabetics to nondiabetics, serum ferritin, transfusion intervals, and age were statistically higher among diabetics (P<0.001).

CONCLUSION: Lower pretransfusion hemoglobin and high rate of prevalence of diabetes, in addition to better compliance to deferiprone than deferoxamine, were detected among the patients.

El-Tagui, M. H., M. M. Hamdy, IAShaheen, H. Agha, and H. A. Abd-Elfatah, "Apolipoprotein E gene polymorphism and the risk of left ventricular dysfunction among Egyptian β-thalassemia major.", Gene, vol. Jul 25;524, issue (2), pp. 292-5, 2013. Abstract

In Egypt, β-thalassemia is the most common hereditary hemolytic anemia. Cardiac dysfunction, secondary to iron overload with formation of oxygen free radicals, is the most common cause of death in β-thalassemia patients. This study was designed to determine whether the allelic genotype of apolipoprotein E (Apo E), which exhibits antioxidant properties, could represent a genetic risk factor for the development of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction in β-thalassemia major. Fifty Egyptian β-thalassemia major patients were subjected to echocardiography to assess LV function. Apo E genotyping by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was done for all patients in addition to 50 age and sex matched healthy control subjects. Patients were classified into three groups. Group I and II were clinically asymptomatic. Group II subjects had evidence of LV dilatation, while Group III patients had clinical and echocardiographic findings of LV failure. Apo E4 allele was significantly higher among Group II and III than in controls. In conclusion, Apo E4 allele can be considered as a genetic risk factor for LV dysfunctions in β-thalassemic patients. It could be used as predictive indicator for additional risk of LV failure, particularly in asymptomatic patients with LV dilatation, requiring a closer follow-up, to prevent further disease progression.

Shaheen, I. A., R. E. Abukhalil, D. K. Ali, and R. A. Afifi, "DNMT3B promoter polymorphism and risk of immune thrombocytopenic purpura in pediatric Egyptians.", Blood coagulation & fibrinolysis : an international journal in haemostasis and thrombosis, vol. 23, issue 7, pp. 636-9, 2012 Oct. Abstract

Idiopathic (immune) thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is a heterogeneous clinical disorder characterized by immune-mediated platelet destruction. Epigenetic changes in gene expression, including DNA methylation and histone modifications, might contribute to autoimmunity. Polymorphisms of the DNA methyltransferase 3B (DNMT3B) gene may influence DNMT3B activity on DNA methylation and increase the susceptibility to several diseases. The current study investigated the association between a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the promoter of DNMT3B gene and the risk for ITP in pediatric Egyptians. DNMT3B SNP was genotyped by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism in 71 pediatric ITP patients and 82 healthy controls matched for age and sex. The C/C wild genotype was not detected in ITP patients or in the controls. The frequencies of the T/T and C/T genotypes were 93.9 and 6.1% in the controls and 91.5 and 6.1% in ITP patients, respectively. There was no significant difference in either genotypes or allelic distribution between ITP patients and the controls. In conclusion, this polymorphism was almost equally distributed between ITP patients and the controls. These results demonstrated that this SNP may not be used as a stratification marker to predict the susceptibility to childhood ITP in Egypt.

Shaheen, I., and N. Ibrahim, "Detection of orphan receptor tyrosine kinase (ROR-1) expression in Egyptian pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia.", Fetal and pediatric pathology, vol. 31, issue 3, pp. 113-9, 2012 Jun. Abstract

Receptor tyrosine kinases, a group of tumor-associated antigens, were introduced as targets for cancer intervention strategies. The human orphan receptor tyrosine kinase-1 (ROR-1) is a member of this family. Overexpression of ROR1 has been reported in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The aim of this study was to detect the expression profile of ROR1 in 54 pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients. ROR1 was overexpressed in ALL as the ROR1/ β-actin ratio was higher in ALL children than in control group (P = 0.024). ROR1 is a potential tool for targeted immunotherapy in pediatric ALL patients.

Eyada, T. K., H. M. Farawela, M. M. Khorshied, I. A. Shaheen, N. M. Selim, and I. A. S. Khalifa, "FcγRIIa and FcγRIIIa genetic polymorphisms in a group of pediatric immune thrombocytopenic purpura in Egypt.", Blood coagulation & fibrinolysis : an international journal in haemostasis and thrombosis, vol. 23, issue 1, pp. 64-8, 2012 Jan. Abstract

Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is an acquired autoimmune disorder caused by the production of antiplatelet antibodies. The current case-control study aimed at detecting the frequency of FcγRIIa-131H/R and FcγRIIIa-158F/V genes polymorphism in Egyptian children with ITP as genetic markers for ITP risk, and to clear out their possible role in choosing the treatment protocols of ITP. To achieve this aim, FcγRIIa genotyping was tested by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) technique, whereas FcγRIIIa genotyping was tested by nested PCR followed RFLP analysis. The current case-control study was conducted on 92 children with ITP; 12 acute and 80 chronic cases and 90 controls. The V allele and FcγRIIIa FV heterotype were significantly higher in ITP patients and conferred increased ITP risk [odds ratio (OR) = 1.96 and 2.55, respectively]. The frequency of FcγRIIa H allele was significantly higher among chronic ITP patients. In conclusion, FcγRIIIa gene polymorphism may contribute to susceptibility to ITP. Moreover, analysis of the FcγR polymorphisms in ITP patients could influence the effectiveness of medications and selection of the line of treatment.

Farawela, H., K. M., I. Shaheen, H. Gouda, A. Nasef, N. Abulata, H. A. Mahmoud, H. M. Zawam, and S. M. Mousa, "• The association between hepatitis C virus infection, genetic polymorphisms of oxidative stress genes and B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma risk in Egypt. ", Infect Genet Evol, vol. Aug;12(6), issue (6), pp. 1189-94, 2012. AbstractWebsite

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been postulated to be an etiological agent for lymphoid malignancies. Polymorphisms in oxidative stress genes as; superoxide dismutase (SOD2), glutathione peroxidase (GPX1), catalase (CAT), myeloperoxidase (MPO) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS2) may influence non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) risk. HCV screening and polymorphisms in these five genes coding for antioxidant enzymes were studied in 100 Egyptian patients with B cell-NHL and 100 controls to clarify the association between HCV infection, oxidative stress genes polymorphisms and B cell-NHL risk. A significantly higher prevalence of HCV infection was detected among NHL patients relative to controls and this carried a 14-fold increased NHL risk (odds ratio (OR)=14.3, 95% confidence interval (CI)=5.4-38.3, p<0.0001). GPX1 and MPO genetic polymorphisms conveyed increase in B-NHL risk (OR=3.3, 95% CI=1.4-7.4, p=0.004 and OR=4.4, 95% CI=1.3-14.2, p=0.009 respectively). Further analyses stratified by HCV infection revealed that concomitant HCV infection and GPX1 gene polymorphism had a synergetic effect on NHL risk with an OR of 15 (95%CI=2.2-69.6, p<0.0001). In addition, combined HCV infection and MPO gene polymorphisms had a pronounced NHL risk (OR=9.2, 95%CI=2.5-33.9, p<0.0001). SOD2, CAT and NOS2 genetic polymorphisms were not found to confer increased NHL risk. This study revealed that HCV infection is a risk factor for NHL in Egypt. Polymorphisms in GPX1 and MPO genes may influence NHL risk in HCV infected Egyptian patients. Larger scale studies are warranted to establish this genetic susceptibility for NHL.
Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Sadek, H. A., W. H. El-Metnawey, I. A. E. - M. Shaheen, M. M. Korshied, and A. S. Mohamed, "Quantitative assessment of Wilms tumor 1 (WT1) gene transcripts in Egyptian acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients.", Journal of investigative medicine : the official publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research, vol. 59, issue 8, pp. 1258-62, 2011 Dec. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Accurate assessment of minimal residual disease (MRD) in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients after initial chemotherapy is essential to evaluate the efficacy of therapeutic regimens. Wilms tumor 1 (WT1) is a pan-leukemic marker used for identification of the leukemic clone rather than the use of individual specific molecular aberration of ALL.

METHODS: Using a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, bone marrow samples from 41 newly diagnosed Egyptian ALL patients; 22 adults and 19 children were examined for WT1 expression. After induction therapy, WT1 expression was reestimated in 20 ALL patients.

RESULTS: WT1 was overexpressed in adult and pediatric ALL patients (95.4% and 89.4%, respectively). WT1 expression at diagnosis had no statistically significant impact on disease-free survival of patients (P = 0.054). However, WT1 expression increased after induction chemotherapy in the 3 pediatric patients who had relapse.

CONCLUSIONS: WT1 is a leukemia-associated molecular marker that may be used for the diagnosis and for monitoring clinical progress in ALL; it also can be used as a molecular target for adoptive immunotherapy.