Determination of protolytic constants by trilinear fluorescence spectroscopy.

Kubista, M., I. H. Ismail, A. Forootan, and B. Sjögreen, "Determination of protolytic constants by trilinear fluorescence spectroscopy.", J Fluoresc, vol. 14, no. 2, United States, pp. 139-44, 3, 2004.


Protolytic equilibria often have profound effects on chemical activity, since protolytic species usually behave quite differently. It is therefore important to characterize the protolytic properties of important chemicals. Here we present a new approach to study protolytic equilibria of fluorescent species that is extremely accurate and relies on minimum assumptions. We show that by measuring 2-dimensional excitation/emission scans of samples at different pH. the 3-dimensional experimental data set, I(lambda(ex), lambda(em), C(pH)), can be unambiguously decomposed into the spectral responses of the protolytic species present as well as their concentration. The approach is demonstrated on the protolytic equilibrium of fluorescein. Although the fluorescein monoanion cannot be obtained in pure form, the spectra and concentrations of both fluorescein species, as well as the protolytic constant, are determined with excellent accuracy. The proposed method is general and can be applied not only for studies of protolytic equilibria, but on any chemical equilibria and chemical reactions involving fluorescent species