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Hafez, M., M. Hilali, and M. Fouda, "Biological studies on Hippobosca equina (L.)(Diptera: Hippoboscidae) infesting domestic animals in Egypt1", Zeitschrift für Angewandte Entomologie, vol. 83, issue 1‐4: Wiley Online Library, pp. 426-441, 1977. Abstract
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Hafez, M., and M. Hilali, "Biology of hippobosca longipennis (fabricus, 1805) in Egypt (Dipteria: Hippoboscidae)", Veterinary Parasitology, vol. 4, issue 3: Elsevier, pp. 275-288, 1978. Abstract
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Hilali, M., A. M. Nassar, and A. El-Ghaysh, "Camel (Camelus dromedarius) and sheep (Ovis aries) meat as a source of dog infection with some coccidian parasites.", Veterinary parasitology, vol. 43, issue 1-2, pp. 37-43, 1992 Jun. Abstract

Experimental infection of dogs with camel (Camelus dromedarius) meat resulted in infection of the dogs with Isospora canis, Hammondia heydorni and Sarcocystis cameli. The dogs fed sheep (Ovis aries) meat passed oocysts of Isospora canis, Isospora ohioensis and sporocyts of Sarcocystis spp. Extraintestinal stages were detected in the intestinal lymph node of a rabbit killed 4 days following inoculation with Isospora ohioensis oocysts. Dogs fed the rabbit (killed 4 days after inoculation with I. ohioensis) passed I. ohioensis oocysts in their faeces 8 days post-infection.

Fatani, A., A. ElSebaie, and M. Hilali, "Clinical and haematobiochemical changes in camels (Camelus dromedarius) experimentally inoculated with Sarcocystis cameli", JOURNAL OF CAMEL PRACTICE AND RESEARCH, vol. 3, issue 1: CAMEL PUBLISHING HOUSE 67 GANDHI NAGAR WEST, NEAR LALGARH PALACE, BIKANER 334001, INDIA, pp. 11-15, 1996. Abstract
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Khashba, A., M. Hilali, S. El-Hennawi, and M. Marei, "Cryptosporidiosis among children suffering from diarrhea in Benha, Egypt.", Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology, vol. 19, issue 2, pp. 701, 1989. Abstract
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Derhalli, F. S., G. I. Higashi, and M. A. Hilali, "Detection of Toxoplasma related antigens in Sarcocystis fusiformis (Railliet, 1897)", Journal-Egyptian Veterinary Medical Association, 1982. Abstract
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Elsaid, H. M., V. M. Nantulya, and M. Hilali, "Diagnosis Of Trypanosoma evansi Infection Among Sudanese Camels Imported To Egypt Using Card Agglutination Test (CATT) And Antigen Detection Latex Agglutination Test (Suratex)", The Research Center for Protozoan Molecular Immunology, vol. 8, issue 3, pp. 194-200, 1998.
Helle, O., and M. Hilali, "Differentiation of Eimeria species infecting sheep during the grazing season on permanent and new pastures under Norwegian conditions.", Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, vol. 14, issue 1, pp. 57, 1973. Abstract
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Hafez, M., M. Hilali, and M. Fouda, "Distribution of Hippoboscidae and Nycteribiidae (Diptera: Pupipara) in Egypt", Veterinary Medical Journal, Cairo Univ.(Egypt), 1984. Abstract
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Hafez, M., M. Fouda, and M. Hilali, "Distribution of Tabanidae and biting Muscidae (Diptera) in Egypt", Veterinary Medical Journal, Cairo Univ.(Egypt), 1984. Abstract
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Hilali, M., and A. Mohamed, "The dog (Canis familiaris) as the final host of Sarcocystis cameli (Mason, 1910).", Tropenmedizin und Parasitologie, vol. 31, issue 2, pp. 213-4, 1980 Jun.
Hilali, M., and A. Mohamed, "The dog (Canis familiaris) as the final host of Sarcocystis cameli (Mason, 1910).", Tropenmedizin und Parasitologie, vol. 31, issue 2, pp. 213-4, 1980 Jun.
Gjerde, B., and M. Hilali, "Domestic cats (Felis catus) are definitive hosts for Sarcocystis sinensis from water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis)", Journal of Veterinary Medical Science: 公益社団法人 日本獣医学会, 2016. Abstract
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Gjerde, B., and M. Hilali, "Domestic cats (Felis catus) are definitive hosts for Sarcocystis sinensis from water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).", The Journal of veterinary medical science / the Japanese Society of Veterinary Science, 2016 Apr 14. Abstract

The definitive hosts of Sarcocystis sinensis in water buffaloes have hitherto been unknown, but the close similarity of this species to the cat-transmitted Sarcocystis bovifelis in cattle suggested they were felids. In a previous study, two domestic cats were fed macroscopic sarcocysts of Sarcocystis fusiformis contained within or dissected from the esophageal muscles of water buffaloes, while no microscopic sarcocysts of S. sinensis were noticed. Both cats started shedding small numbers of sporocysts 8-10 days post infection (dpi) and were euthanized 15 dpi. Using a PCR-based molecular assay targeting the mitochondrial cox1 gene of S. fusiformis, both cats were shown to act as definitive hosts for this species. In the present study, DNA samples derived from oocysts/sporocysts in the intestinal mucosa of both cats were further examined by PCR for the presence of S. sinensis using 2 newly designed primers selectively targeting the cox1 gene of this species. All 6 DNA samples examined from each cat tested positive for S. sinensis. A 1,038-bp-long portion of cox1 was amplified and sequenced as 2 overlapping fragments from 5 of these DNA samples. The 5 sequences shared 99.3-100% identity with 7 previous cox1 sequences of S. sinensis obtained from sarcocysts in water buffaloes. Additionally, amplification of the ITS1 region with primers targeting various Sarcocystis spp., yielded amplicons of 2 different lengths, corresponding to those obtained from sarcocyst isolates of S. sinensis and S. fusiformis, respectively. This is the first study to show that cats act as definitive hosts for S. sinensis.

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Hafez, M., M. Hilali, and M. Fouda, "Ecological studies on Hippobosca equina (Linnaeus, 1758)(Diptera: Hippoboscidae) infesting domestic animals1 in Egypt", Zeitschrift für Angewandte Entomologie, vol. 87, issue 1‐4: Wiley Online Library, pp. 327-335, 1978. Abstract
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Gadallah, A. I., and M. Hilali, "Effect of ektafos on ixodid ticks infesting camels and dogs in Egypt.", 2. General Conference of Agricultural Research Centre. Giza (Egypt). 9-11 Apr 1984., 1984. Abstract
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Hilali, M., and A. Hassan, "The endogenous stages of Sarcocystis cameli (Mason, 1910)", Veterinary parasitology, vol. 11, issue 2: Elsevier, pp. 127-129, 1982. Abstract
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Hilali, M., R. Lindberg, T. Waller, and B. Wallin, "Enigmatic cyst-forming sporozoon in the spinal cord of a dog [cyst, case history].", Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, 1986. Abstract
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El-Bahay, G. H., M. S. Adbel-Rahman, M. A. Hilali, and Y. Z. El-Abedin, "Evaluation of some chemicals for the control of some common arthropods in Egypt", Veterinary medical journal, 1978. Abstract
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Hilali, M., A. Abdel-Gawad, A. Nassar, A. Abdel-Wahab, E. Magnus, and P. Büscher, "Evaluation of the card agglutination test (CATT/T. evansi) for detection of Trypanosoma evansi infection in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Egypt.", Veterinary parasitology, vol. 121, issue 1-2, pp. 45-51, 2004 May 7. Abstract

A card agglutination test (CATT/T. evansi) was evaluated for detection of antibodies against Trypanosoma evansi (T. evansi) in experimentally and naturally infected buffaloes. Four calves were inoculated with a strain of T. evansi isolated from a dromedary camel. Parasitological examination of the calves revealed trypanosomes in the blood from days 4 to 9 post-inoculation (PI). General emaciation appeared from day 26 PI and aggravated until the end of the experiment (day 88 PI). Antibodies against T. evansi were detectable from day 8 PI till the end of the experiment. Parasitological examination of 200 water buffalo blood samples obtained from slaughterhouses revealed negative results. Serological examination of these animals showed that 48 (24%) water buffaloes had anti-T. evansi antibodies.

Al-Kappany, Y. M., S. A. Abu-Elwafa, M. Hilali, B. M. Rosenthal, D. B. Dunams, and J. P. Dubey, "Experimental transmission of Sarcocystis muris (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) sporocysts from a naturally infected cat (Felis catus) to immunocompetent and immunocompromised mice.", The Journal of parasitology, vol. 99, issue 6, pp. 997-1001, 2013 Dec. Abstract

Cats serve as definitive hosts for zoonotic Toxoplasma gondii , a protozoan that threatens human reproductive health, but they also excrete sporocysts of related protozoan that pose no known human health risk. Here we provide the first definitive evidence for natural infection with the enzootic parasite Sarcocystis muris, one such enzootic parasite. Sporulated Sarcocystis sp. sporocysts were found in rectal contents of an adult feral cat ( Felis catus ) in Giza, Egypt. After these sporocysts were orally inoculated into 2 Swiss Webster mice, sarcocysts were found to have developed in skeletal muscles 114 days later. As observed through transmission electron microscopy, the cyst wall corresponded to Type 1, and the parasitophorous vacuolar membrane had tiny outpocketing of blebs (<200 nm thick) that were not invaginated into the interior of the cyst; these structures were identical to the sarcocyst wall described for a Costa Rican isolate of S. muris that has served as an experimental model for nearly 4 decades. Two parasite-free cats fed sarcocyst-infected muscles developed patent infections; fully sporulated sporocysts (10-11 × 7.0 μm) were found in the lamina propria of small intestines of cats killed 6 and 7 days postinoculation (PI). Interferon gamma gene knockout (KO) mice were orally inoculated with sporocysts from experimentally infected cats, and their tissues were examined histologically; sarcocysts were found in 5 KO mice killed 87, 115, 196, 196, 196 days PI, but no stages were seen in 5 KO mice 10, 14, 14, 18, and 39 days PI. Bradyzoites were released from intramuscular sarcocysts of a KO mouse killed 115 days PI and orally inoculated into 5 KO mice. No stage of Sarcocystis was found in any organ (including intestinal lamina propria) of KO mice killed 4, 8, 81, 190, and 190 days PI, confirming that the definitive host is required to complete the life cycle even in the case of immunodeficient mice. This is the first confirmation of S. muris infection in a naturally infected cat anywhere.

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ElBehairy, A. M., S. Choudhary, L. R. Ferreira, O. C. H. Kwok, M. Hilali, C. Su, and J. P. Dubey, "Genetic characterization of viable Toxoplasma gondii isolates from stray dogs from Giza, Egypt.", Veterinary parasitology, vol. 193, issue 1-3, pp. 25-9, 2013 Mar 31. Abstract

Stray dogs are considered as sentinels in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii because they are carnivores and eat variety of foods, including garbage. In the present study, tissues and sera of 51 stray dogs (Canis familiaris) from Giza, Egypt were examined for T. gondii infection. Sera were examined for antibodies to T. gondii by the modified agglutination test (MAT); 50 of 51 (98%) were seropositive with titers of 20 in four, 40 in four, 80 in one, 100 in eight, 200 in 17, 400 in 11, 800 or higher in five. Hearts of 43 seropositive dogs were bioassayed in mice. Viable T. gondii was isolated from 22 dogs; these isolates were designated TgDogEg1 to TgDogEg22. DNA isolated from cell culture derived tachyzoites of 22 isolates was genotyped using 10 PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism markers (SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico). The results revealed three genotypes and one mixed infection. The three genotypes are ToxoDB PCR-RFLP #2 (type III, four isolates), #3 (type II variant, 11 isolates), #20 (six isolates), 1 mixed infection. These results revealed the dominance of clonal type II, III and ToxoDB #20 lineages of T. gondii in stray dogs from Giza, Egypt.

Al-Kappany, Y. M., C. Rajendran, S. A. Abu-Elwafa, M. Hilali, C. Su, and J. P. Dubey, "Genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii isolates in Egyptian feral cats reveals new genotypes.", The Journal of parasitology, vol. 96, issue 6, pp. 1112-4, 2010 Dec. Abstract

Cats are important in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii because they are the only hosts that excrete environmentally resistant oocysts in feces. In the present study, 115 viable T. gondii isolates from tissues of cats from Egypt were genotyped using 10 PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism markers (SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico) and DNA from tachyzoites. Seven genotypes were recognized including the clonal Type II, Type III (2 genotypes), and 4 atypical genotypes. Ninety percent (103 of 115) of isolates were clonal, i.e., Type II (n  =  61) and Type III (n  =  42) strains. Of the 61 Type II strains, all had the Type II alleles at all loci, except for 2 strains that had allele I at Apico. Eight isolates were divided into 4 atypical genotypes. One of these genotypes (with 4 isolates) was previously reported in dogs from Sri Lanka and in sand cats from the United Arab Emirates. Four isolates had mixed infections. These results revealed a strong clonal population structure with the dominance of clonal Type II and III lineages of T. gondii in feral cats from Egypt.

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Dessouky, M. I., A. H. Mohamed, A. M. Nassar, and M. Hilali, "Haematological and biochemical changes in buffalo calves inoculated with Sarcocystis fusiformis from cats.", Veterinary parasitology, vol. 14, issue 1, pp. 1-6, 1984 Jan. Abstract

Two groups of buffalo calves were infected with Sarcocystis fusiformis sporocysts. Animals of the first group received each 5 X 10(5) sporocysts, those of the second group 5 million sporocysts. All calves were clinically normal during 6 weeks after infection. Minor changes were observed in the blood cytology, serum alkaline phosphatase, glutamic oxalacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, total proteins, urea and glucose of infected buffalo calves.

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