Energy Efficiency Strategies in Urban Planning of Cities

Citation:
Khalil, H. A. E. E., "Energy Efficiency Strategies in Urban Planning of Cities", 7th Annual International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, 45th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference & Exhibit, Denver, Co, USA, 2009.

Abstract:

Urbanization is the leading sector humans are working on where the ever-growing population is spreading globally, and constantly moving into cities. The major urbanization activities are taking place in the developing world. Consequently sensitivity to environmental issues related to energy, efficiency and sustainability become a vital issue when addressing urbanization. Although many countries of the developed world have given considerable attention to this issue, most developing countries have paid little or none attention. This paper is addressing this issue with special focusing on the Arabian Gulf area, where the rising prices of oil are having their impact on the booming construction sector. Moreover, the study investigates how existing cities are planned considering energy efficiency in much older cities as those in Egypt. The paper studies the relationship between cities and energy consumption in order to identify the factors having the most impact in planning for energy efficiency. Various factors are explored starting with the macro level; studying the city in relation to its surrounding region, its role, and size. Then the micro level concerning the city is studied including: urban patterns (compact vs. dispersed developments), land use distribution and home-work trip, road networks and transportation network, buildings with their layout forms, heights and facades treatments, and the use of renewable energy. In addition, the impact of city consumption in the form of its ecological footprint and sustainability are studied. The paper studies the role of legislations and laws addressing environmental issues and governance issues for energy efficient cities. It emphasizes the importance of communication between different stakeholders involved in the city. The paper presents a number of case studies situated in the Middle East as examples of the developing and transforming countries. First, the Gulf area which is now benefiting from the rising prices of oil and undertaking a huge construction movement. More and more money is poured in huge development projects raising a debate whether to follow the western pattern of growth or to return to the traditional compact cities. A different initiative for zero waste is the city of Masdar, United Arab Emirates is reviewed. Second, Egypt is presented as an example of much older urban settlements, undergoing continuous expansion to accommodate the flooding numbers seeking urban paradise. The ongoing program of strategic planning for cities, administered by the General Organization of Physical Planning GOPP, is studied to see how the program’s terms of reference addresses the issue of energy efficiency. Moreover, the paper investigates whether this issue is tackled during the various stages of the planning process, or by any of the participating stakeholders or not. The other case study from Egypt is Cairo which is continuously expanding in all directions with different patterns of growth. The paper attempts to study how this growth relates to energy efficiency strategies. The paper concludes with a group of strategies for energy efficiency that could be implemented in the Egyptian context regarding new or existing cities in the context of building an overhaul vision for urban growth sensitive to energy efficiency.

Related External Link