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U
Attia, S., Z. Shafik, A. El Halafawy, and H. A. Khalil, "Urban Regeneration of Public Space - Al-Alfi Street - Downtown Cairo", International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning, WIT., vol. 12, issue 4, pp. 808-818, 2017. AbstractWebsite

Urban regeneration has been an accepted strategy for reviving city centers around the globe in Western Developed settings and in developing cities for decades. In Cairo, post January 25th Revolution, the Egyptian government sought an approach to upgrade several sites in downtown classical Cairo, to set new conditions for use of public space, to redistribute the power of authority and re-define the rules for the claim of public space of the city. The Cairo Governorate officially launched many projects within the same period; mainly focusing on refurbishing squares and streets, facades face lifting, controlling vendors’ trespassing and regulating car parking space among other regulations within Downtown area. However, having accepted and acknowledged the governmental intentions of the regeneration projects a question poses itself as to ‘How the community perceives and cherishes those initiatives?’ More important questions are raised regarding the regeneration of Al Alfi Street, the case study that addresses the governmental attempt in down town Cairo in 2015. It brings to light the dynamics enacted between different stakeholders. A research is conducted by adopting participant observations, surveys, questionnaires, and interviews with the local community and different stakeholders to understand their perception and appreciation to the ‘2015’ urban regeneration attempt. The findings of the paper set the urban regeneration principles in a discussion aiming at assessing the stakeholders’ involvement versus their goals and measuring their satisfaction with the outcome of the project, while still posing the question of the meaning of urban regeneration to the local community and to alternative scenarios that could yield more successful outcomes.

Khalil, H. A. E. E., and S. Attia, "Urban Metabolism and Quality of Life in Informal Areas", REAL CORP, Ghent, Belgium, 7 May, 2015. Abstractcorp2015_19.pdf

The 21st century is known as the century of urbanization. Numerous debates are currently taking place to define cities and what they should aspire to be. A number of terms have appeared in this arena,such as sustainable city, ecocity and green city to name a few. However, the main question remains how to measure the performance of a city in regards to these aims. In addition, it is vital to note that major urbanization activities take part in cities of the developing world, where informalization is synonym to urbanization, thus necessitating a profound study of informal areas and their potential role in achieving sustainable cities. This paper studies how a city performs in terms of consuming and producing resources and how they flow through its various systems, described as urban metabolism. The paper particularly discusses how informal areas perform regarding their metabolism, focusing on water flow through these areas as a priority identified by the residents. Imbaba district, one of the largest informal areas in Cairo, is investigated as a case study to determine the actual quality of life of local residents and their ecological footprint and to provide practical insights. The whole process depends on a multidisciplinary participatory research where the citizens and local community based organization are the focal point. In addition, the process depends on open source data and data sharing as a way to empower local communities to identify their needs and issues and hence their appropriate interventions. This is conducted through questionnaires and interviews to identify what the current conditions and processes in informal areas provide for the residents. The paper concludes with identifying points of leakages in the resources flows and the possible interventions to improve the quality of life in the area while maintaining an efficient use of local resources and minimizing the impact of urbanization of the ecological footprint of cities. This will assist cities to become more resilient in the face of water scarcity, and provide a more vibrant life for its residents.

R
Khalil, H. A. E. E., and A. Al-Ahwal, "Reunderstanding Cairo through urban metabolism: Formal versus informal districts resource flow performance in fast urbanizing cities", Journal of Industrial Ecology, vol. 25, pp. 176–192, 2021.
Nicolopoulou, K., A. M. Salama, S. Attia, C. Samy, D. Horgan, H. A. E. E. Khalil, and A. Bakhaty, "Re-enterprising the unplanned urban areas of Greater Cairo- a social innovation perspective", Open House Internationa, vol. 46, issue 2, pp. 189-212, 2021. Abstract

Purpose
This study aims to develop an innovative and comprehensive framework to address water-related challenges faced by communities located in urban settlements in the area of Greater Cairo. It is commonly accepted that such global challenges that border issues of resilience, community development, social equity and inclusive growth, call for a collaboration of disciplines. Such collaboration allows for the identification of synergies in ways that can enlighten and enrich the space of potential solutions and create pathways towards robust solutions.
Design/methodology/approach
The research process has been participatory, and it involved, apart from site interviews, engagement via a photographic exhibition, during an outreach and engagement event, of the researched sites in one of the academic institutions of the authors. A total of 12 women were interviewed and the expert’s workshop was attended by 12 experts.
Findings
Social innovation can promote agile processes to prototyping services, involving multiple sectors and stakeholders through open ecosystems. For urban settlements undergoing rapid expansion, social innovation can help communities and governments to build resilience in the face of resource gaps – often making use of advancements in technology and improvements from other disciplines (Horgan and Dimitrijevic, 2019). For the unplanned urban areas around Greater Cairo, input from different knowledge areas can offer valuable contributions; in terms of the project and the study that we report on in this paper, the contributing areas included architecture and urban planning, as well as women-led entrepreneurship targeting economic growth, social and community impacts.
Originality/value
In this paper, we demonstrate the significance of a transdisciplinary framework based on social innovation, for the study of women-led entrepreneurship as a response to water-based challenges within an urban settlement. The creation of such a framework can be a significant contribution to conceptualise, examine and respond to “wicked challenges” of urban sustainability. This paper also believes that the readership of the journal will be subsequently benefitting from another way to conceptualise the interplay of theoretical perspectives at the level of organisations and the individual to support the inquiry into such challenges.

I
Almalt, A., S. Attia, and H. A. Khalil, "Investigating The Evolution Of Informal Urban Pockets In Greater Cairo Region", Journal of Engineering Research, Faculty of Engineering in Mataria, Helwan University, vol. 154 (June 2017), pp. A15–A38, 2017. Abstract

The urban fabric of Greater Cairo comprises different urban patterns that coexist and grow simultaneously. These include but are not limited to; radial, gridiron, organic and more; all merged and intertwined in a unique way, making it hard to grasp all these different patterns on ground. Between these different patterns, formal planned areas and informal unplanned areas rises an urban component otherwise known as urban island/pocket, which are surrounded by a distinctive formal pattern. This paper aims to investigate the emergence and evolution of these urban islands within the social, economic and political influences that dominated the 20th century in Cairo. This investigation leads to an insightful understanding of the multilayered fabric of Cairo, unveiling some of its hidden layers, which evolved amidst urban formality and informality. Cases are a comparative analysis between the two types of informal urban pockets, which are; 1. Old City Core (Village/Ezbat); and 2. Small Spaces between old & new districts. This analysis is carried out through monitoring the formulation of one case study of each type, which exists in Mohandessin and Khedival Cairo respectively.

Kafrawy, M., S. Attia, and H. Khalil, "The Impact of Transit-Oriented Development on Fast-Urbanizing Cities: Applied analytical study on Greater Cairo Region", Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs, vol. 6, issue 1, pp. 83-95, 2022. Abstract

Transportation has always been the backbone of development. Transit-oriented development (TOD) has been theorized, piloted and expanded increasingly in the past few decades. In this regard, this paper investigates the relationship between urban development, the transportation process, and the required implementation guidelines within fast-urbanizing cities, such as Cairo. After reviewing different related sustainable development theories, the study investigates pioneering case studies that have applied TOD and provided adequate implementation frameworks. The authors then extract and compare a set of required policies. The current Egyptian development paradigm is then discussed in relation to these enabling policies, focusing on Greater Cairo Region, Egypt. The authors debate previous development plans, progress, and newly proposed ones, focusing on the transportation process as the means for development. The study concludes with a set of required guidelines to ensure the integration of transportation with land-use planning, thus ensuring a more prosperous and inclusive urban development.

G
Khalil, H., and N. Abdel-Moneim, Gender Equity in Cities of the MENA Region: Women’s Right to the City, : ACADEMY Publishing Center, 2020.
D
Abdel-Moneim, N. M., H. A. E. Khalil, and R. R. Kamel, "Developing QOL Index for Resettlement Projects of Unsafe Areas in Egypt", Urban Forum, vol. 32, issue 3, pp. 349-371, 2021. Abstract

Both public authorities and mid-high income groups, in many instances, tend to see urban informality as an illness that should be treated and/or eliminated. However, urban informality provides several attributes that contribute to the livelihood of many communities and surrounding residents. Urban informality possesses potentials that would facilitate both formalization and integration of such areas within the city, considering that it is currently the most prominent urbanization method. Consequently, unsafe areas’ upgrading and resettlement projects should not be limited to providing housing, clean water, or enhanced sanitation. They should extend to make fair use of the existing inherent potentials to improve livability for both slum dwellers and surrounding areas. Aiming to enhance the dwellers’ quality of life (QOL), upgrading projects should ensure the actual implementation of economic, social, institutional, and urban programs. This would entail the cooperation between various stakeholders to achieve inclusive development, create a sense of community, and attract local small and medium investments. This paper aims to develop a QOL Index tailored for unsafe areas’ upgrading/resettlement projects. Based on the literature review of various existing indices and case study analysis, the paper develops a set of criteria to define relevant urban, social, economic, and institutional indicators to assure QOL for unsafe areas’ dwellers and guide new resettlement projects with a focus on the Egyptian context.

Almalt, A., S. Attia, and H. A. Khalil, "Developing Mixed Uses to Regenerate Urban pockets in Greater Cairo Region (GCR)", Journal of Engineering Research, Faculty of Engineering in Mataria, Helwan University, vol. 154 (June 2017), pp. A 39- A61, 2017. Abstract

There is no doubt that retail is one of the most important factors that affect economy in any country. Retailing is also one of the most important aspects in any urban strategy where inhabitants can easily reach and get their daily needs. Recently new urban approaches appeared as the key to solve many urban problems and regenerate the resources and potentials in the urban context in order to use it in a better way for the sake of the present and new generation. One of these approaches is the Retail-led Urban Regeneration, where retail is considered a key regenerating tool.
This paper discusses the retail-led urban regeneration approach in general and whether it is relevant to Greater Cairo Region. The paper also investigates whether inhabitants in Greater Cairo Region prefer to live in a mixed-use or in a residential neighborhoods. It also identifies the positive and negative aspects affecting the inhabitants due to the presence of mixed-uses- specifically retail-in their neighborhoods. Other related issues to 'Retail-led Urban regeneration' are also discussed. A field survey is conducted with inhabitants in three mixed-use districts representing different typologies in order to reach recommendations for proposing the best use to be allocated while upgrading urban deteriorated pockets in GCR.

C
ElGohary, S., A. Abdeen, S. Attia, and H. A. Khalil, "City's Environmental Performance Assessment", Towards a Better Quality of Life, First International Conference, TUBCG and HBRC, 24-26 November, , EL Gouna, Egypt, 24 November , 2017. Abstract

The scope of this research is to introduce an approach to assess the city's environmental performance, a few years ago many environmental initiatives appeared to conserve the quality of life like Green city, Smart City, Sustainable City, and Eco City; all of them set their concerns on how to let the city green or sustainable, but another definition appeared to make the city resists its environmental and natural hazards called “Resilient City”.
Many tools appeared to assess the city's environmental performance like Green City Index, Global City Indicator, and CASBEE for City all of them contain a certain list of measurable indicators to make the assessment more accurate and to reach the problem level.
To apply this tool to the case study in “Cairo”, the data collection depends on field measurements of air quality and then linking this data geographically using ArcGIS program. Two selected districts are taken; one of them is characterized by heavy traffic load, and the other has a main path that was regenerated to be a pedestrian path so all the results reflect the effect of traffic load on air. Finally, this approach helps the decision makers to improve their city performance and to set the priorities to solve the problem.

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