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A
Khalil, H. A. E. E., "Affordable Housing: Quantifying the Concept in the Egyptian Context", JEAS, Journal of Engineering and Applied Science, vol. 59, issue 2, pp. 129-148, 2012. AbstractWebsite

Affordability is the core of providing middle and low income housing. This paper debates the delivery of affordable housing in Egypt. It claims that the main current failure is the missing link between economic strata and relevant housing categories, i.e. the physical interpretation of affordability and appropriate delivery tools. In order to close the gap between housing market and targets, the paper dismantles housing market inputs to formulate an appropriate output; a housing market that is affordable, needs responsive and flexible. The methodology entails reviewing the current housing market, analyzing previous policies to pinpoint their failures. The paper then focuses on 3 main study areas to define affordability locally. First, deducing the physical needs of target groups through the study of formal housing standards and the parallel appealing informal housing market. Second, market analysis of prices and acquisition trends define the local financial system. Third, the economic study of income strata and relevant housing expenditures define affordability. The paper concludes a matrix of interrelating determinant factors of the appropriate housing program and suggests needed delivery tools to close the housing gap. The proposed methodology is applied to 10th of Ramadan city to quantify affordability and construct an appropriate housing market.

Khalil, H. A. E. E., "Applying Participatory Design Methodology In Informal Areas", Appropriating Architecture, Taming Urbanism In The Decades Of Transformation, 3rd International Conference ARCHCAIRO, Cairo, Egypt, 2006.
C
ElGohary, S., A. Abdeen, S. Attia, and H. A. Khalil, "City's Environmental Performance Assessment", Towards a Better Quality of Life, First International Conference, TUBCG and HBRC, 24-26 November, , EL Gouna, Egypt, 24 November , 2017. Abstract

The scope of this research is to introduce an approach to assess the city's environmental performance, a few years ago many environmental initiatives appeared to conserve the quality of life like Green city, Smart City, Sustainable City, and Eco City; all of them set their concerns on how to let the city green or sustainable, but another definition appeared to make the city resists its environmental and natural hazards called “Resilient City”.
Many tools appeared to assess the city's environmental performance like Green City Index, Global City Indicator, and CASBEE for City all of them contain a certain list of measurable indicators to make the assessment more accurate and to reach the problem level.
To apply this tool to the case study in “Cairo”, the data collection depends on field measurements of air quality and then linking this data geographically using ArcGIS program. Two selected districts are taken; one of them is characterized by heavy traffic load, and the other has a main path that was regenerated to be a pedestrian path so all the results reflect the effect of traffic load on air. Finally, this approach helps the decision makers to improve their city performance and to set the priorities to solve the problem.

Khalil, H. A. E. E., A. Ibrahim, N. Elgendy, and N. Makhlouf, "Could/should Improving the Urban Climate in Informal Areas of Fast Growing Cities be an Integral Part of Upgrading Processes? Case study, Cairo", Urban Climate, vol. 24, pp. 63-79, 2018. AbstractWebsite

Many researches have highlighted the importance of environmental justice, where healthy environment
is a right to all. Currently, the most vulnerable groups to climate change are low-income urban dwellers, typically residing in urban informalities within cities of the Global South. In Cairo, the awareness about climate change and responsive consumption is minimal and the increase in temperature could have serious effects on residents' health. In 2012, informalities were reported to house two thirds of the population and covered a third of the city's footprint. Thus, this paper highlights the importance of studying environmental performance in informal areas to achieve sustainability and reduce risks. It reviews work related to sustainable urbanization, informal areas, urban heat island and urban climate especially in Cairo. It defines needed parameters and develops an integrated tool to assess comfort in outdoor spaces microclimate. The paper relies on extensive fieldwork, meteorological measurements, socio-environmental surveys, activity mapping and modelling to study both Cairo urban climate and microclimate in one of Cairo's densest informal districts. The paper stresses the possibility of introducing responsive low-tech and low-cost strategies and interventions. This is discussed as an inherent right to marginalized areas and a necessity within a continuous process of urbanization.

D
Almalt, A., S. Attia, and H. A. Khalil, "Developing Mixed Uses to Regenerate Urban pockets in Greater Cairo Region (GCR)", Journal of Engineering Research, Faculty of Engineering in Mataria, Helwan University, vol. 154 (June 2017), pp. A 39- A61, 2017. Abstract

There is no doubt that retail is one of the most important factors that affect economy in any country. Retailing is also one of the most important aspects in any urban strategy where inhabitants can easily reach and get their daily needs. Recently new urban approaches appeared as the key to solve many urban problems and regenerate the resources and potentials in the urban context in order to use it in a better way for the sake of the present and new generation. One of these approaches is the Retail-led Urban Regeneration, where retail is considered a key regenerating tool.
This paper discusses the retail-led urban regeneration approach in general and whether it is relevant to Greater Cairo Region. The paper also investigates whether inhabitants in Greater Cairo Region prefer to live in a mixed-use or in a residential neighborhoods. It also identifies the positive and negative aspects affecting the inhabitants due to the presence of mixed-uses- specifically retail-in their neighborhoods. Other related issues to 'Retail-led Urban regeneration' are also discussed. A field survey is conducted with inhabitants in three mixed-use districts representing different typologies in order to reach recommendations for proposing the best use to be allocated while upgrading urban deteriorated pockets in GCR.

E
Khalil, H. A. E. E., and E. E. Khalil, Energy Efficiency in the Urban Environment, : CRC press, Taylor and Francis, 2015. AbstractWebsite

Energy Efficiency in the Urban Environment is a study of energy crisis, urbanisation, and climate change, as well as a discussion of how to combat these global challenges. With a special focus on Egypt, this book addresses the macroscale of urbanism from the perspective of city dwellers’ quality of life, and explores the microscale of buildings and the perspective of ensuring indoor air quality within the boundaries of energy efficiency.

Offering an integrated view of energy systems and urban planning supported by extensive data, references, and case studies, this text:

- Examines the energy efficiency performance of cities following sustainable urbanism principles
- Investigates how informal areas in developing countries achieve sustainable development
- Presents energy-efficient urban planning as a tool for improving city energy performance
- Proposes the development of a common procedure for obtaining an energy performance certificate
- Calculates the energy performance of buildings, accounting for heating/cooling systems and other variables

Energy Efficiency in the Urban Environment demonstrates the importance of implementing an energy performance directive to aid energy savings in large buildings and set regulations for energy-efficient designs based on standard calculation methods. This book provides engineers working with sustainable energy systems, urban planners needing information on energy systems and optimisation, and professors and students of engineering, environmental science, and urban planning with a valuable reference on energy sustainability.

Khalil, H. A. E. E., "Energy Efficiency Strategies in Urban Planning of Cities", 7th Annual International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, 45th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference & Exhibit, Denver, Co, USA, 2009. Abstract

Urbanization is the leading sector humans are working on where the ever-growing population is spreading globally, and constantly moving into cities. The major urbanization activities are taking place in the developing world. Consequently sensitivity to environmental issues related to energy, efficiency and sustainability become a vital issue when addressing urbanization. Although many countries of the developed world have given considerable attention to this issue, most developing countries have paid little or none attention. This paper is addressing this issue with special focusing on the Arabian Gulf area, where the rising prices of oil are having their impact on the booming construction sector. Moreover, the study investigates how existing cities are planned considering energy efficiency in much older cities as those in Egypt. The paper studies the relationship between cities and energy consumption in order to identify the factors having the most impact in planning for energy efficiency. Various factors are explored starting with the macro level; studying the city in relation to its surrounding region, its role, and size. Then the micro level concerning the city is studied including: urban patterns (compact vs. dispersed developments), land use distribution and home-work trip, road networks and transportation network, buildings with their layout forms, heights and facades treatments, and the use of renewable energy. In addition, the impact of city consumption in the form of its ecological footprint and sustainability are studied. The paper studies the role of legislations and laws addressing environmental issues and governance issues for energy efficient cities. It emphasizes the importance of communication between different stakeholders involved in the city. The paper presents a number of case studies situated in the Middle East as examples of the developing and transforming countries. First, the Gulf area which is now benefiting from the rising prices of oil and undertaking a huge construction movement. More and more money is poured in huge development projects raising a debate whether to follow the western pattern of growth or to return to the traditional compact cities. A different initiative for zero waste is the city of Masdar, United Arab Emirates is reviewed. Second, Egypt is presented as an example of much older urban settlements, undergoing continuous expansion to accommodate the flooding numbers seeking urban paradise. The ongoing program of strategic planning for cities, administered by the General Organization of Physical Planning GOPP, is studied to see how the program’s terms of reference addresses the issue of energy efficiency. Moreover, the paper investigates whether this issue is tackled during the various stages of the planning process, or by any of the participating stakeholders or not. The other case study from Egypt is Cairo which is continuously expanding in all directions with different patterns of growth. The paper attempts to study how this growth relates to energy efficiency strategies. The paper concludes with a group of strategies for energy efficiency that could be implemented in the Egyptian context regarding new or existing cities in the context of building an overhaul vision for urban growth sensitive to energy efficiency.

Khalil, H. A. E. E., "Enhancing Quality Of Life Through Strategic Urban Planning", Sustainable Cities and Society, vol. 5, pp. 77-86, 2012. AbstractWebsite

For decades the sole measure of progress has been the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). However, there has been a growing criticism for the dependence on standard of living as the only measure of well-being. Although the concept of quality of life has been in the development discourse for some time now, measuring it in a city is quite difficult as the aspects to be measured are still questionable. Moreover, the relative weight for each aspect can generate an endless debate. There are a number of indices claiming to measure and rate quality of life in different cities or countries. This paper reviews a number of leading indices in the field as efforts of various companies and organizations. It argues what aspects comprise good quality of life. It debates that different perspectives of the concept exist, giving more importance to subjective perspectives, especially when prioritizing actions or projects to enhance quality of life in a certain city. The paper studies strategic urban planning of cities as a tool to improve quality of life. It compares the main sectors addressed in the process to quality of life aspects. It then studies 2 cities in Egypt as case studies to review how stakeholders prioritize projects according to what contributes in improving their quality of life. The analysis shows the similarities and diversities of perspective in the Egyptian context.

Mourad, G., H. A. Khalil, and M. Zayed, "Evaluation of the Situation in Greater Cairo with Regards to Citizen Participation in Urban Governance Through the Emerging Information and Communication Technologies", ISOCARP-OAPA 2017, Portland, USA, 2017. Abstract

The paper evaluates citizen participation in urban governance through the emerging
information and communication technologies in Greater Cairo. It explores one of the local
cases that took advantage of the emerging technologies for participation, and measures
readiness of Greater Cairo inhabitants to participate through these technologies using a
questionnaire survey.

F
Khalil, H. A. E. E., "Formalizing Informal Urbanism: Markets and Development. The story of Cairo", ACC Urban Conference, Cape Town, 1-3 February, 2018.
I
Almalt, A., S. Attia, and H. A. Khalil, "Investigating The Evolution Of Informal Urban Pockets In Greater Cairo Region", Journal of Engineering Research, Faculty of Engineering in Mataria, Helwan University, vol. 154 (June 2017), pp. A15–A38, 2017. Abstract

The urban fabric of Greater Cairo comprises different urban patterns that coexist and grow simultaneously. These include but are not limited to; radial, gridiron, organic and more; all merged and intertwined in a unique way, making it hard to grasp all these different patterns on ground. Between these different patterns, formal planned areas and informal unplanned areas rises an urban component otherwise known as urban island/pocket, which are surrounded by a distinctive formal pattern. This paper aims to investigate the emergence and evolution of these urban islands within the social, economic and political influences that dominated the 20th century in Cairo. This investigation leads to an insightful understanding of the multilayered fabric of Cairo, unveiling some of its hidden layers, which evolved amidst urban formality and informality. Cases are a comparative analysis between the two types of informal urban pockets, which are; 1. Old City Core (Village/Ezbat); and 2. Small Spaces between old & new districts. This analysis is carried out through monitoring the formulation of one case study of each type, which exists in Mohandessin and Khedival Cairo respectively.

M
Nasr ElDin, R., H. A. E. E. Khalil, and R. Kamel, "Monitoring and Evaluating the Rental Housing Market in Egypt, Arabic paper,", Journal of Engineering Research, Faculty of Engineering in Mataria, Helwan University, vol. 144, issue September 2014, 2014. Abstract

بدأ الاهتمام بنمط الايجار في سوق الاسكان المصري مع ظهور الوثيقة المرجعية الصادرة من وزارة الاسكان والمجتمعات العمرانية لاستراتيجيات الاسكان وسياساته 2012-2027 والتي تؤكد على ضرورة الاتجاه الي الايجار الٌامن وزيادة حصته في سوق الاسكان المصري حيث ان الايجار وسيلة لدعم لمواطن المحتاج للدعم ويوفر مسكن مناسب للأسر متوسطة الدخل وخاصة في اول مراحل حياتها.
وطبقًا لمؤشر سعر الوحدة منسوبًا الي دخل الاسرة، (الذي يربط بين دخل الاسرة وإمكانياتها لحيازة وحدة بنظام التمليك) نجد صعوبة امتلاك غالبية الاسر المصرية لوحدة سكنية حيث يصل هذا المؤشر في الدول المتقدمة الي 3 سنوات، اما في مصر فتحتاج الاسرة المصرية الي 11.87 سنة لكي تمتلك وحدة (راجح، 2008)
كما توضح التقارير ان نسبة الايجار في سوق الاسكان بلغت 63% في القاهرة ((UN-HABITAT), 2003)، كما يستحوذ أفراد الطبقة الوسطي وحدها على 47 % من الوحدات السكنية الخاضعة لقانون الإيجارات الجديد في مصر (تقرير التنمية البشرية -مصر، 2010). وتشير الاحصاءات الأخيرة إلى أن حوالي 75% من الأسر الناشئة في مصر غير قادرة على امتلاك مسكن مناسب دون الحصول على دعم ولذا عليها اما الاستئجار أو شراء منزل في العشوائيات (مصر، 2013).
تهدف هذه الورقة البحثية الي دراسة وتحليل لبعض المشروعات السكنية التي قامت على نمط الايجار للطبقات المحدودة والمتوسطة الدخل لمعرفة مدي جدوى هذه المشروعات في تحقيق مسكن مناسب للفئات المستهدفة، والتعرف على نقاط القوة والضعف للاستفادة منها في المشروعات السكنية القادمة.
وتم اختيار تجربتين من سوق الاسكان المؤجر، الاولي مدينة الشيخ خليفة وهو مشروع قيد التنفيذ والاخرى مشروع الوحدات الإيجارية لمحدودي الدخل التابع للمشروع القومي للإسكان 2005/2011 وقد روعي اختلاف ظروف التجربتين بهدف اثراء الدراسة بالتجارب والظروف المختلفة.
واوضحت الورقة البحثية ان نمط الايجار من اهم انماط الاسكان في سوق الاسكان المصري ولكن يحتاج قانون الايجار الجديد بعض التعديلات لضمان حقوق كل من المالك والمستأجر وتوفر انتقال سكني مؤمن.

N
Khalil, H. A. E. E., "New Urbanism, Smart Growth and Informal Areas: Aquest for Sustainability", CSAAR Conference 2010, Sustainable Architecture & Urban Development, Amman, Jordon, 2010. Abstractnew_urbanism_smart_growth_and_informal_areas__a_quest_for_sustainability_with_conf_title.pdf

Informal urban growth has been the primary trend of urban growth for the past decades, mostly in developing countries where there is a clear lack of proper urban planning and management. Thus the study of these areas and their impact is most needed. On the other hand, in the developed world, there has been a debate about sustainable development and whether to go compact or to disperse and integrate with nature. There are a number of middle positions; the urban village, ‘new urbanism’, the sustainable urban matrix, transit-oriented development, smart growth and sustainable urbanism, which try to combine the energy efficiency gained from a compact urban form with the broader quality-of-life aspects gained from the dispersed city. This paper attempts to compare the main guidelines of sustainable urbanism theories to informal urban development, addressing issues of sustainability. The study will depend mainly on informal areas built on agricultural land, which is almost exclusive to Egypt rather than squatter areas. By highlighting their sustainability advantages and the disadvantages, potentials can be preserved when attempting to upgrade or rebuild these areas and assure their sustainability based on local proven experience. Thus, participating in the quest for more sustainable cities locally rooted rather than globally induced.

Q
Khalil, H. A. E. E., "Quality Of Life & Energy Policy in Informal Areas and Their Resilience in The Face of The Challenges of Climate Change", ACEE- Air Conditioning and Energy Efficiency, Qatar, 27 May, 2014.
R
ElDin, R. N., H. A. E. E. Khalil, and R. Kamel, "Residential Mobility in Egypt; a Must or a Myth", Dynamics and Resilience of Informal Areas: International Perspectives: Springer, 2016. Abstract

Residential mobility is a key element in a responsive housing market this is especially crucial countries with limited resources & residential areas like Egypt, studying the residential mobility will solve many of housing concerns. This study seeks to provide a deeper understanding of family life cycle and within residential mobility process and its influencing factors. It theoretically develops and empirically tests the acceptance of that concept, enhancing the rent set-ting mechanism and the subsidy policy to ensure the affordability of middle-income housing in Egypt.
The research models residential mobility, using unique survey data that examines specific life-cycle variables to evaluate the concept of residential mobility in the Egyptian housing market as a whole and find out why residential mobility through rental housing became a myth in the Egyptian housing market after it was scattered for a long time.
The findings suggest that residential mobility through a secured housing process could be a popular tool that helps middle income groups in Egypt in finding affordable and appropriate rental housing and it could be one of the effective solutions in illuminating informal areas.

ElDin, R. N., H. A. E. E. Khalil, and R. Kamel, "Residential Mobility in Egypt…A Must or A Myth?", 6th International Conference ARCHCAIRO, Responsive Urbanism In Informal Areas: Towards A Regional Agenda For Habitat III, Cairo, Egypt, 26 November, 2014.
S
Khalil, H. A. E. E., "Sustainable Urbanism: Theories and Green Rating Systems", 10th Annual International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, 48th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference & Exhibit, Atlanta, Georgia, USA, 2012. Abstract

Sustainability has been the core of debates on development for the past decades with the additional debate on quality of life as a right even to vulnerable groups. Thus, advocating a more holistic approach to urban development. Sustainable Urbanism theories have been developing over the past 2 decades or so, while only recently comprehensive indices to measure or rate the sustainability of urban agglomerations have been developed. This paper examines the relation between following an urban planning theory or pattern and scoring high on the sustainability charts. The paper examines a number of cities rated by the Green City Index reviewing the relationship between their scores in various fields related to energy efficiency and the concepts governing their urban growth. The paper concludes a matrix showing the correlations between sustainable urbanism principles and performance indicators. The paper then applies this matrix to one of the new cities developed in Greater Cairo Metropolitan Region to examine how sustainability can be ensured and achieved in its future growth.

T
Khalil, H. A. E. E., "Towards A Unified Definition Of Informal Areas In The Arab Region", Quality Of Life: A Vision Towards Better Future, 2nd International Conference, Cairo, Egypt, 2012.
U
Khalil, H. A. E. E., and S. Attia, "Urban Metabolism and Quality of Life in Informal Areas", REAL CORP, Ghent, Belgium, 7 May, 2015. Abstractcorp2015_19.pdf

The 21st century is known as the century of urbanization. Numerous debates are currently taking place to define cities and what they should aspire to be. A number of terms have appeared in this arena,such as sustainable city, ecocity and green city to name a few. However, the main question remains how to measure the performance of a city in regards to these aims. In addition, it is vital to note that major urbanization activities take part in cities of the developing world, where informalization is synonym to urbanization, thus necessitating a profound study of informal areas and their potential role in achieving sustainable cities. This paper studies how a city performs in terms of consuming and producing resources and how they flow through its various systems, described as urban metabolism. The paper particularly discusses how informal areas perform regarding their metabolism, focusing on water flow through these areas as a priority identified by the residents. Imbaba district, one of the largest informal areas in Cairo, is investigated as a case study to determine the actual quality of life of local residents and their ecological footprint and to provide practical insights. The whole process depends on a multidisciplinary participatory research where the citizens and local community based organization are the focal point. In addition, the process depends on open source data and data sharing as a way to empower local communities to identify their needs and issues and hence their appropriate interventions. This is conducted through questionnaires and interviews to identify what the current conditions and processes in informal areas provide for the residents. The paper concludes with identifying points of leakages in the resources flows and the possible interventions to improve the quality of life in the area while maintaining an efficient use of local resources and minimizing the impact of urbanization of the ecological footprint of cities. This will assist cities to become more resilient in the face of water scarcity, and provide a more vibrant life for its residents.

Attia, S., Z. Shafik, A. El Halafawy, and H. A. Khalil, "Urban Regeneration of Public Space - Al-Alfi Street - Downtown Cairo", International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning, WIT., vol. 12, issue 4, pp. 808-818, 2017. AbstractWebsite

Urban regeneration has been an accepted strategy for reviving city centers around the globe in Western Developed settings and in developing cities for decades. In Cairo, post January 25th Revolution, the Egyptian government sought an approach to upgrade several sites in downtown classical Cairo, to set new conditions for use of public space, to redistribute the power of authority and re-define the rules for the claim of public space of the city. The Cairo Governorate officially launched many projects within the same period; mainly focusing on refurbishing squares and streets, facades face lifting, controlling vendors’ trespassing and regulating car parking space among other regulations within Downtown area. However, having accepted and acknowledged the governmental intentions of the regeneration projects a question poses itself as to ‘How the community perceives and cherishes those initiatives?’ More important questions are raised regarding the regeneration of Al Alfi Street, the case study that addresses the governmental attempt in down town Cairo in 2015. It brings to light the dynamics enacted between different stakeholders. A research is conducted by adopting participant observations, surveys, questionnaires, and interviews with the local community and different stakeholders to understand their perception and appreciation to the ‘2015’ urban regeneration attempt. The findings of the paper set the urban regeneration principles in a discussion aiming at assessing the stakeholders’ involvement versus their goals and measuring their satisfaction with the outcome of the project, while still posing the question of the meaning of urban regeneration to the local community and to alternative scenarios that could yield more successful outcomes.