Vitamin D deficiency in Egyptian mothers and their neonates and possible related factors.

Rifai, N. M. E., G. A. F. A. Moety, H. M. Gaafar, and D. A. Hamed, "Vitamin D deficiency in Egyptian mothers and their neonates and possible related factors.", The journal of maternal-fetal & neonatal medicine : the official journal of the European Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies, the International Society of Perinatal Obstetricians, vol. 27, issue 10, pp. 1064-8, 2014 Jul.


OBJECTIVE: To correlate vitamin D level in Egyptian mothers with that of their newborns, and examine risk factors related to maternal vitamin D deficiency.

METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out at the university teaching hospital in Cairo, Egypt. Serum 25(OH) D levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 135 pregnant women at ≥37 weeks' gestation immediately before delivery and in cord blood of their newborns.

RESULTS: The levels of serum 25(OH) D were 32.6 ± 21.4 ng/ml in mothers and 16.7 ± 10 ng/ml in their newborns. Maternal vitamin D level was strongly correlated with that of the newborns (r = 0.7, p < 0.0001). Maternal vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency and neonatal vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency were encountered in (40%, 28.9% and 60%, 32.6% respectively). Maternal vitamin D levels showed significant correlations with maternal body mass index (BMI; r = -0.201, p = 0.021), gestational age at delivery (r = 0.315, p ≤ 0.0001), fish consumption (r = 0.185, p = 0.032), educational level (r = 0.29, p = 0.001), and skin exposure (r = 0.247, p = 0.004).

CONCLUSION: Maternal vitamin D levels strongly correlate with neonatal levels. Maternal vitamin D deficiency is a real problem in Egypt; this is generally related to high BMI, low fish consumption, low educational level, and limited skin exposure.