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Bassiyoni, A., Saad, F., M. Refai, and A.: El Batrawi, "Efficacy of serological and allergic diagnosis of A. fumigatus infection in chickens.", J. Egypt. Vet. Med. Ass. , vol. 41, , pp. 161-171 , 1981. efficiency_of_serological_and_allergic_diagnosis.pdf
Bisping, W., M. Refai, and G. Trautwein, "Candida parapsilosis als Ursache eines Rinderabortes.", Berl. Muench. Tieraerztl. Wschr. , vol. 77, pp. 260-262, 1964. Abstractcandida_parapsilosis_as_a_cause_of_bovine_abortion.pdf

In a retrospective study, four cases of yeast-associated abortion were found among 1,323 bovine abortions during a 5-year period at the New York State College of Veterinary Medicine. Tissues were examined histologically, and results of virological testing and microbiological culture were reviewed. Candida parapsilosis was the only pathogenic agent demonstrated in these four cases. Placental lesions consisted of necrotizing placentitis with large numbers of yeasts within trophoblasts. Secondary fetal infection occurred in all four cases, with histological lesions or isolation of Candida from the lung, liver, intestines, abomasum, and heart. A tentative diagnosis of Candida parapsilosis-induced abortion in cattle can be made on the characteristic intracytoplasmic yeasts in placental trophoblasts.

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