Publications

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Journal Article
Nabil, G., N. I. M. Khafaga, M. El-Hariri, and M. K. and Refai, "Detection of fungi and total aflatoxins in food additives and some meat products by serological and molecular biological methods.", J Egypt Vet. Med. Ass., vol. 177, issue 2, pp. 153-173, 2017. bhth_jhd_nbyl.pdf
Refai, M., H. Kotb, H. Shawky, W. Tawakkol, R. Al–Arosi, and M. El-Hariri, "Development of brown colonies and capsule of Cryptococcus neoformans on plant extract agar and media containing oils.", Mykologie Forum,, vol. 3,, pp. 25-27,, 2005. brown_colour_beffect_in_cr._n.pdf
TAMAM, O. M. A. R. A. S., and M. Refai, "DUAL MYCOTIC PULMONARY GRANULOMAS CAUSED BY ALTERNARIA ALTERNATA AND ASPERGILLUS CANDI", Assiut Vet. Med. J. , vol. 59, issue 139, pp. 9-13, 2013. bhth_rqm_4427_dd_ktwbr_2013_1.pdf
Refai, M., Kotb, H., El-Far, Hassan, E. Hegazi, and A. Hamouda, "Effect of antimicrobial agents on the growth of toxigenic Aspergillus ochraceus in poultry feedstuffs. ", J. Egypt. Vet. Med. Ass. , vol. 55, , pp. 867-879 , 1985. effect_of_antimicrobial_agents.pdf
Ahmed, K. A., H. A. E. Yazeed, H. Kotb, M. Elshabrawy, R. Alarousy, and M. Refai, "The effect of capsular size of C. neooformans on pathogenicity and pathological changes in experimentally infected mice.", J. American Sci., vol. 7, pp. 33-39, 2012.
Moursi, H., and M. Refai, "The effect of hormones on some fungi in vitro. Mykosen", Mykosen, vol. 11, pp. 1747-754 , 1968. Abstracteffect_of_hormones_on_fungi.pdf

1
Die Wirkung von Sexualhormonen (Stilböstrol, Östron, Äthinylöstradiol, Progesteron, Testosteronpropionat), Epiphysenhormonen, Schilddrüsenhormonen und Nebennieren-rindenhormonen auf das Wachstum von Candida albicans, Mikrosporum gypseum und Aspergillus niger wurde in vitro untersucht.
2
Stilböstrol stimulierte in kleinen Dosen (0,001 mg/ml) das Wachstum von Candida albicans und Mikrosporum gypseum, während es in höheren Dosen (6 mg/ml) eine fungizide Wirkung aufwies. Eine Hemmwirkung wurde beobachtet bei 0,25 bis 3 mg/ml auf Candida albicans, von 0,01 bis 3 mg/ml auf Mikrosporum gypseum und von 0,01 bis 6 mg/ml auf Aspergillus niger.
In kleinen Dosen (0,001 bis 0,01 mg/ml) förderte Östron das Wachstum von A. niger, ebenso wie Äthinylöstradiol das Wachstum von M. gypseum und A. niger. Progesteron hatte keine Wirkung auf das Wachstum von C. albicans von 0,05 bis 6 mg/ml, aber es förderte das Wachstum von M. gypseum und A. niger in Dosen von 0,05 bis 0,5 mg/ml und 0,5 bis 1 mg/ml. Eine Hemmwirkung auf M. gypseum wurde bei hohen Dosen von 1 bis 6 mg/ml beobachtet, auf A. niger in Dosen von 3 bis 6 mg/ml.

Testosteronpropionat förderte das Wachstum von C. albicans in Dosen von 0,05 bis 6 mg/ml, M. gypseum in Dosen von 3 bis 6 mg/ml, A. niger in Dosen von 1 bis 6 mg/ml.

3
Epiphysenvorderlappenextrakt hemmte die Testpilze in Dosen zwischen 0,05 bis 0,3 E/ml. Fungizid wirkten 0,3 E/ml auf A. niger.
4
Schilddrüsenhormon förderte das Wachstum der Testpilze in Dosen von 6 und 12 mg/ml.
5
17α-hydroxy-11-dehydro-corticosteronacetat förderte das Wachstum von A. niger in Dosen von 0,005 bis 5 mg/ml und hemmte das Wachstum von C. albicans in Dosen von 0,2 bis 5 mg/ml. 5 mg/ml zeigten eine fungizide Wirkung auf M. gypseum.

Gehan A. Nabawy1, Atef A. Hassan2, R. S. H. El-Ahl2, and M. K. Refai3, "EFFECT OF METAL NANOPARTICLES IN COMPARISON WITH COMMERCIAL ANTIFUNGAL FEED ADDITIVES ON THE GROWTH OF ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS AND AFLATOXIN B1 PRODUCTION", Journal of Global Biosciences, vol. 3, ,, issue 6, pp. 954-971, 2014. gehan_published_paper_2.12.2014.pdf
Aliaa E. Mouhamed*, A. A. Hassanb, Manal, A. Hassanb, M. E. Hariria, and M. Refai, "Effect of Metal Nanoparticles on the Growth of Ochratoxigenic Moulds and Ochratoxin A Production Isolated From Food and Feed", International Journal of Research Studies in Biosciences (IJRSB) , vol. 3, issue 9, pp. 1-14, 2015. 03v3i904-6.pdf
Refai, M., Hammad, H., A. Hassan, and E.: Moustafa, "Effect of ochratoxin A on different culture types. ", J. Egypt. Vet. Med.Ass. , vol. 54,, pp. 113-122 , 1994. effect_of_ochra_a_on_cultures.pdf
Bassiyoni, A., Saad, F., M. Refai, and A.: El Batrawi, "Efficacy of serological and allergic diagnosis of A. fumigatus infection in chickens.", J. Egypt. Vet. Med. Ass. , vol. 41, , pp. 161-171 , 1981. efficiency_of_serological_and_allergic_diagnosis.pdf
Elhariri, M., D. Hamza, R. Elhelw, and M. Refai, "Eucalyptus Tree: A Potential Source of Cryptococcus neoformans in Egyptian Environment", International Journal of Microbiology, vol. 2016, issue 1, pp. 1-5, 2016. cryptococcus_paper_eucalyptus.pdf
Elhariri, M., D. Hamza, R. Elhelw, and M. Refai, "Eucalyptus Tree: A Potential Source of Cryptococcus neoformans in Egyptian Environment", International Journal of Microbiology, vol. 2016, issue 1, pp. 1-5, 2016. cryptococcus_paper_eucalyptus.pdf
El-Gibaly, S., Hegazi, S. Ibrahim, and M.: Refai, "Evaluation of field application of Brucella abortus (Abortox) vaccine in buffaloes and cattle.", Proc. 2d. International Buffalo Conference, New Delhi, vol. 1, pp. 33-40, 1989. evaluation_of_field_application_of_brucella_vaccines.pdf
Refai, M., Awad, E., Hammam, H., S. Ibrahim, and A. Mehanna, "Evaluation of locally prepared rose bengal plate and buffered acidified plate antigens of Brucella abortus.", J. Egypt. Vet. Med. Ass., vol. 50, , pp. 215-227 , 1990.
Refai, M., Hammad, H., El-Far, Hegazi, Saleh, N., A. Abdel-Aziz, and A. Hassan, "Fungal flora of grains and poultry feeds with reference to aflatoxin and ochratoxin contamination. ", J. Egypt. Vet. Med. Ass. , vol. 50, , pp. 479-496 , 1990. fungal_flora_of_grains.pdf
Abdalla, E. F., S. Nasef, E. M. Hariri, and M. Refai, "Genotypic characterization of antibiotic resistant Salmonella isolates recovered from local and imported poultry", Journal Global Biosciences, vol. 4, issue 6, pp. 2611-2622, 2015. enas_published_paper.pdf
Saleh, H. A., M. El-Hariri, A. A. Moawad, and M. K. Refai, "Genotyping of Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans Isolates", International Journal of Genetics , vol. 1, issue 2, pp. 27-35, 2011. genotyping_of_candida_albicans_and_cryptococcus_neoformans_isolates_recovered.pdf
Refai, M., and M. El-Enbaawy, "Germ tube bilding by Candida albicans in camel serum. ", Hautnah Mykol. , vol. 3, , pp. 166-167, 1991. germ_tube_formation_in_c._albicans_in_camel_serum.pdf
Refai, M., M. Abd El Ghani, and A. I. Soliman, "Immune response of chickens to streptomycin-dependent mutant, Cu and oil-adjuvant vaccines of Pasteurella multocida.", J. Egypt. Vet. Med. Ass. , vol. 45, , pp. 435-445 , 1985. immune_response.pdf
Heba Roshdy*, S. A. E. - A. * and, and M. Refai, "Incidence of E. coli in chickens and ducks in different governorates in Egypt ", 1st Conf. of An. Health Res. Inst. Assoc., , vol. December, issue 1, pp. 420-426, 2012. incidence_of_e_coli_in_poultry.pdf
Niazi, Z., H. El Sawah, and M. Refai, "Incidence of enteropathogenic Staphylococcus aureus and its enterotoxins in milk and meat products.", J. Egypt. Vet. Med. Ass. , vol. 46, , pp. 95-107, 1986. s._aureus_in_milk_and_meat.pdf
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