Publications

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Journal Article
El-Gothamy, Z., El-Okby, M., R. Lasheen, and M. Refai, ": Studies on pityriasis alba in Egypt. ", Castellania , vol. 3, , pp. 203- 205 , 1975. pityriasis_alba.pdf
Refai, M., ": Zungensoor bei jungen Hunden.", Pilzdialog , vol. 3, , pp. 55 (, 1986. zungensoor.pdf
Harby, H., J. El-Jakee, and M. Refai, "The aetiology and diagnosis of mastitis in Oman. J. Egypt. ", Vet. Med. Ass., vol. 51, , pp. 783-795 , 1991. the_aetiology_of_mastitis_in_oman.pdf
Alarousy, R., H. A. E. Yazeed, H. Kotb, K. Abdalla, and M. Refai, "Amplification of Capsule-associated Genes from Cryptococcus neoformans", New York Science Journal, 2011;4(11), vol. 4, issue 11, pp. 38-42, 2011. amplification_of_capsule-associated_genes_from_cryptococcus_neoformans.pdf
Wareth G1, Hikal A, R. M, Melzer F, Roesler U, and N. H., "Animal brucellosis in Egypt.", J Infect Dev Ctries. , vol. 13;, issue 8(11):, pp. 1365-73. ., 2014.
Refai, M., Laila Mohamed, A. Kenawy, and S. Ali, "The assessment of mycotic settlement of freshwater fishes in Egypt.", 7. International Conference on Recirculating Aquaculture, July 25-27,. Blacksburg, V A 24051, USA., vol. 1, pp. 499-507, , 2008. the_assessment.pdf
Refai, M., "Bacterial and fungal diseases of buffaloes in Egypt.", J. Egypt. Vet. Med. Ass. , vol. 50, , pp. 427-447, 1990. bacterial_and_fungal_diseasis_in_buffaloes.pdf
Refai, M., "Bacterial and mycotic diseases of camels in Egypt. ", Proc. 1st int. Camel Conf., Dubai, United Arab Emerat, vol. 1, pp. 59-64 , 1992. bacterial_and_mycotic_diseases_of_camels.pdf
Yazeed, H. A. E., M. Elhariri, E. Saleh, M. A. Afifi, A. Samir, and M. Refai, "Bacterial Causes of Embryonic Death in Ostrich Egg", International Journal of Research Studies in Biosciences (IJRSB) , vol. 3, issue 8, pp. 46-52, 2015. engi_published_paper.pdf
Refai, M., Rashwan, A., S. A. Attia, and E. Sharaf, "Bacteriological and serological studies on avian mycoplasmas in Menofia Governorate. ", Mansoura Vet. Med. J., vol. 6 , pp. 61-74. , 2004. bact_and_serol._studies_on_aviab_mycopl.pdf
Rieth, H., and M. Refai, "Bei Mikrosporie Diagnose und Feststellung der Abheilung kulturell sichern", Mycoses, vol. 14, issue 12, pp. 601, 1971. rieth_et_al-1971-mycoses.pdf
Niazi, Z., Kirpal, G., G. Amtsberg, and M. Refai, "Biochemie, Serologie, Maeusepathogenitaet und Antibiotikaresistenz von Klebsiellen verschiedener Tierarten.", Berl. Muench. tieraerztl. Wschr. , vol. 90, , pp. 435-440 , 1977. biochemistry_serology_pathogenicity__of_klebsiella__pdf
Niazi, Z., M. Refai, and H.: El Sawah, "Biovars and enterotoxigenicity of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from diseased broiler chickens. ", Vet. Med. J. , vol. 36, , pp. 243-255 , 1988. biovars_of_et_staph.pdf
Bisping, W., M. Refai, and G. Trautwein, "Candida parapsilosis als Ursache eines Rinderabortes.", Berl. Muench. Tieraerztl. Wschr. , vol. 77, pp. 260-262, 1964. Abstractcandida_parapsilosis_as_a_cause_of_bovine_abortion.pdf

In a retrospective study, four cases of yeast-associated abortion were found among 1,323 bovine abortions during a 5-year period at the New York State College of Veterinary Medicine. Tissues were examined histologically, and results of virological testing and microbiological culture were reviewed. Candida parapsilosis was the only pathogenic agent demonstrated in these four cases. Placental lesions consisted of necrotizing placentitis with large numbers of yeasts within trophoblasts. Secondary fetal infection occurred in all four cases, with histological lesions or isolation of Candida from the lung, liver, intestines, abomasum, and heart. A tentative diagnosis of Candida parapsilosis-induced abortion in cattle can be made on the characteristic intracytoplasmic yeasts in placental trophoblasts.

El-Bahy, G., and M.: Refai, "Cats and dogs are potential carriers of Microsporum canis.", J. Egypt. Vet. Med. Ass. , vol. 28, , pp. 63-69 , 1973. cats_and_dogs.pdf
Heidy Abo El-Yazeed, A. Hassan, W. Tawakkol, E. Radwan, and " M. Refai:, "Characterization of Candida albicans strains by molecular biology techniques",", Bull. Fac. Pharm. Cairo Univ. , , vol. 40, pp. . 121-135, 2008. characterization_of_candida_albicans_strains_by_molecular_______biology_techniques.doc.pdf
Refai, M., and M. Amer, "Chronic paronychia in Egypt. ", Ernst-Rodenwaldt-Archiv , vol. 2, , pp. 55-63 , 1974. chronic_paronychia_in_egypt.pdf
K., R. M., M. El Hariri, and R. Alaroussy, "Cryptococcosis in Animals and Birds: A Review", European Journal of Academic Essays , vol. 4, issue 8, pp. 202-223, 2017. cryptococcosis_review__published.pdf
Amer, A. Rashid, and M. Refai, "Dermatomykosen in Aegypten durch Trichophyton violaceum. ", Hautnah. Mykol, , vol. 1 , pp. 23-26, 1992. t._violaceum.pdf
Rania M. Azab, W.M. Tawakkol, A. M. Hamad, M.K. Abou-Elmagd, H. M. El-Agrab, and M. K. Refai, "Detection and estimation of aflatoxin B1 in feeds and its biodegradation by bacteria and fungi.", Egypt. J. Natural Toxins, vol. 2,, pp. 39-56., 2005. detec_and_est_of_afl_b1_in_feeds_and_its_biodegr.pdf