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B
Bassiyoni, A., Saad, F., M. Refai, and A.: El Batrawi, "Efficacy of serological and allergic diagnosis of A. fumigatus infection in chickens.", J. Egypt. Vet. Med. Ass. , vol. 41, , pp. 161-171 , 1981. efficiency_of_serological_and_allergic_diagnosis.pdf
Bisping, W., M. Refai, and G. Trautwein, "Candida parapsilosis als Ursache eines Rinderabortes.", Berl. Muench. Tieraerztl. Wschr. , vol. 77, pp. 260-262, 1964. Abstractcandida_parapsilosis_as_a_cause_of_bovine_abortion.pdf

In a retrospective study, four cases of yeast-associated abortion were found among 1,323 bovine abortions during a 5-year period at the New York State College of Veterinary Medicine. Tissues were examined histologically, and results of virological testing and microbiological culture were reviewed. Candida parapsilosis was the only pathogenic agent demonstrated in these four cases. Placental lesions consisted of necrotizing placentitis with large numbers of yeasts within trophoblasts. Secondary fetal infection occurred in all four cases, with histological lesions or isolation of Candida from the lung, liver, intestines, abomasum, and heart. A tentative diagnosis of Candida parapsilosis-induced abortion in cattle can be made on the characteristic intracytoplasmic yeasts in placental trophoblasts.

D
Dreisoerner, H., M. Refai, and H. Rieth, " Otitis externa durch Microsporum canis bei Katzen. ", Kleintier Prax. , vol. 9, pp. 230-234, 1964. otitis_externa_in_cats_due_to_m._canis.pdf
E
Easa, M., Hatem, M.E., E. Sakr, and M. Refai, " Phoma herbarum as a mycotic fish pathogen in Clarias lazera. ", Vet. Med. J. , vol. 92, , pp. 257-267 , 1984. phoma.pdf
Ebeid, N., Omar, H., M. Refai, and R.: Soliman, "Respiratory mycotic affection: Sputum examination of workers in a flax plant in Egypt.", J. Soc. Occup. Med. , vol. 32, , pp. 66-72 , 1982. respiratory_and_mycotic_affections.pdf
El-Aziz, S. A., H. Roshdy, and M. Refai, "A study of phenotypic and genotypic virulence markers of Escherichia coli isolat-ed from poultry", 1st Conf. of An. Health Res. Inst. Assoc., ., vol. 1, issue December , pp. 514 - 530, 2012. publication49_1_9.pdf
El-Bahay, G., E. and Elmossalami, and M. Refai, "The use of some disinfectants as fungicides.", Mykosen Mykosen 11, 807-810 (1968), vol. 11, pp. 807-810 , 1968. Abstractthe_use_of_disinfectants_as_fungicides.pdf

Zusammenfassung
Unter den Pilzen, die auf und in Lebensmitteln vorkommen, befinden sich auch solche, die als Erreger von Mykosen bei Mensch und Tier in Frage kommen; andere können Mykotoxikosen hervorrufen.

Drei Aspergillus-Arten (Asp. flavus, Asp. fumigatus und Asp. niger) sind von beson-derer Bedeutung. Asp. flavus ist der wichtigste Pilz, der das Lebergift und Carcinogen Aflatoxin erzeugt. Asp. fumigatus ist der häufigste Erreger von Lungenaspergillosen, Asp. niger verursachte mehr kutane Erscheinungen, vor allem im Gehörgang.

Folgende Ergebnisse wurden erzielt: Izal tötet in 1 %iger Losung alle 3 Pilze innerhalb von 10 min ab. Die Schädigung beginnt bereits nach 1 min.

Tego 51 wirkt fungizid in 1 %iger Lösung gegen Asp. fumigatus und Asp. niger in 15 min, gegen Asp. flavus in 30 min; die 2%ige Lösung totet Asp. fumigatus und Asp. niger in 10 min, Asp. flavus in 15 min; die 3 %ige Lösung totet Asp. fumigatus in 5 min, Asp. flavus und Asp. niger in 10 min.

Rohmultisept ist wirkungslos gegen alle drei Pilze in den Konzentrationen 1 %, 2 % und 3 %.

Antigerm 50 tötet in 2 %iger Konzentration alle 3 Aspergillen in 30 min bei Zimmer-temperatur, in 3 %iger Konzentration in 15 min; in 5 %iger Konzentration bei etwa 0° C in 10 min.

Kupfersulfat ist in den Konzentrationen von 1 bis 8 % wirkungslos sowohl bei Zimmer-temperatur als auch bei 0° C.

Eisensulfat tötet in einer Konzentration von 8% in 10 min Asp. fumigatus und Asp. niger bei Zimmertemperatur, in 15 min auch Asp. flavus; bei 0° C Temperatur wurden alle 3 Aspergillus-Arten innerhalb von 10 min abgetotet.

Kühlräume, in denen Lebensmittel gelagert werden, lassen sich infolgedessen mit den als wirksam befundenen Desinfektionsmitteln pilzfrei halten. Bei der Desinfektion ist zu beachten, daß alte Farbe, die schon pilzbefalien ist, vorher entfernt wird; die Wände sind vor Beginn der Desinfektion mit Wasser abzuspülen. Die gründlich desinfizierten Räume sind noch etwa 3 Std geschlossen zu halten, bevor sie wieder gebraucht werden.

El-Bahy, G., and M.: Refai, "Cats and dogs are potential carriers of Microsporum canis.", J. Egypt. Vet. Med. Ass. , vol. 28, , pp. 63-69 , 1973. cats_and_dogs.pdf
El-Ebeedy, A., Refai, M., Hegazi, G. Edris, Rashwan, A., N. Allam, and A. Abdel-Aziz, "Studies on a locally prepared temperature-senstive mutant M. Gallisepticum vaccine in comparison with a commercially prepared vaccine. ", Proc. 2d. Sci. Conf. Egypt. Vet. Poult. Ass. , Cairo, Egypt. Vet. Poult. Ass. , 1990. studies_on_locally_prepared_mycoplasma_vaccine.pdf
El-Enbaawy, M., E. L. - J. akee, A. J., Fayed, and M. Refai, " Evaluation of competitive ELISA in comparison with other conventional serological tests for detection of bovine brucellosis in Egypt. ", J. Egypt. Vet. Med. Ass. , vol. 55, , pp. 769-780 , 1995. evaluation_of_com.pdf
El-Far, H. F., Hammad, and M.: Refai, " Cryptococcus neoformans as a cause of bovine mastitis in Egypt. ", J. Egypt. Vet. Med. Ass., vol. 47, , pp. 303-208 , 1987. cr_neoformans_mastitis.pdf
El-Far, Hassan, Kotb, H., Hegazi, A. Hamouda, and M. Refai, " Occurrence of ochratoxins and ochratoxigenic moulds in different feeds and feedstuffs in Egypt.", J. Egypt. Vet. Med. Ass. , vol. 55, , pp. 855-856 , 1995. occurrence_of_ochratoxins.pdf
El-Gibaly, S., Hegazi, S. Ibrahim, and M.: Refai, "Evaluation of field application of Brucella abortus (Abortox) vaccine in buffaloes and cattle.", Proc. 2d. International Buffalo Conference, New Delhi, vol. 1, pp. 33-40, 1989. evaluation_of_field_application_of_brucella_vaccines.pdf
El-Gothamy, Z., El-Okby, M., R. Lasheen, and M. Refai, ": Studies on pityriasis alba in Egypt. ", Castellania , vol. 3, , pp. 203- 205 , 1975. pityriasis_alba.pdf
El-Hamaky, A. M., Atef A. Hassan2, H. A. E. Yazeed, and M. K. Refai, "Prevalence and Detection of Toxigenic A. flavus , A. niger and A. ochraceus by traditional and molecular biology methods in feeds", International Journal of Current Research, vol. 8, issue 1, pp. 25621, 2016. elhamaky_paper_2016.pdf
El-Hamaky, A. M., A. A. Hassan, H. A. E. Yazeed, and M. K. Refai, "Prevalence and Detection of Toxigenic A. flavus , A. niger and A. ochraceus by traditional and molecular biology methods in feeds", International Journal of Current Research, vol. 8, issue 1, pp. 25621-33, 2016. elhamaky_paper_2016.pdf
El-Hefnawi, H., Z. El-Gothamy, and M. Refai, " Studies on pityriasis versicolor in Egypt. IIncidence. ", ykosen, vol. 14, , pp. 225-231 , 1971. studies_on_pit._versicolor_1_incidence.pdf
El-Hefnawi, H., Z. H., El-Gothamy, and M. Refai, "Studies on Pityriasis versicolor in Egypt. III. Laboratory diagnosis.", Mykosen , vol. 15, , pp. 165-170 , 1972. studies_on_oityriasis_versicolor_in_egypt.iii_laboratory_dia.pdf
El-Mazny, H., Abdel-Fattah, A., M. Abdallah, and M.: Refai, " Study of tinea cruris in Egypt. ", Mykosen , vol. 15, , pp. 331-335 , 1972. tinea_cruris_in_egypt.pdf
El-Naggar, A., Ahmed, F. Ibrahim, and M. Refai, "Some pathological studies in the udder of small ruminants intramammarily infected with Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans.", J. Comp. Pathol. & Clinc. Pathol. , vol. 10, , pp. 93-104, 1997. some_path._studies_on_the_udder.pdf
El-Naggar, A., Ahmed, F. Ibrahim, and M. Refai, "Mycotic abortion in small ruminants induced by Aspergillus fumigatus in Egypt.. ", J. Comp. Pathol. & Clinc. Pathol., vol. 10, , pp. 59-76 , 1997. mycotic_abortion_in_small_ruminants_cause_by_a._fumigatus.pdf
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