El Badawy, S. A., H. A. Ogaly, R. M. Abd-Elsalam, and A. A. Azouz, "Benzyl isothiocyanates modulate inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis Nrf2/HO-1 and NF-κB signaling pathways on indomethacin-induced gastric injury in rats.", Food & function, 2021. Abstractfood__function.pdf

The present study investigated the gastroprotective activity of benzyl isothiocyanates (BITC) on indomethacin (IND)-induced gastric injury in a rat model and explicated the possible involved biochemical, cellular, and molecular mechanisms. The rat model with gastric ulcers was established by a single oral dose of IND (30 mg per kg b.wt). BITC (0.75 and 1.5 mg kg-1) and esomeprazole (20 mg per kg b.wt) were orally administered for 3 weeks to rats before the induction of gastric injury. Compared with the IND group, BITC could diminish both the macroscopic and microscopic pathological morphology of gastric mucosa. BITC significantly preserved the antioxidants (glutathione GSH, superoxide dismutase SOD), nitric oxide (NO), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) contents, while decreasing the gastric mucosal malondialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) contents. Moreover, BITC remarkably upregulated the expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), hemoxygenase-1 (HO-1), and NAD(P)H : quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1). In addition, BITC activates the expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP-70) and downregulated the expression of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and caspase-3 to promote gastric mucosal cell survival. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first published report to implicate the suppression of inflammation, oxidative stress, and Nrf2 signaling pathway as a potential mechanism for the gastroprotective activity of BITC.

Abdel-Rahman, R. F., S. I. Alqasoumi, H. A. Ogaly, R. M. Abd-Elsalam, H. A. El-Banna, and G. A. Soliman, "Propolis ameliorates cerebral injury in focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) rat model via upregulation of TGF-β1.", Saudi pharmaceutical journal : SPJ : the official publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society, vol. 28, issue 1, pp. 116-126, 2020. Abstractsaudi_pharmaceutical_journal-2020.pdf

Neuroprotective impact of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) is increasingly recognized in different brain injuries. Propolis exhibits a broad spectrum of biological and pharmacological properties including neuroprotective action. The objective of the investigation was to explore the involvement of TGF-β1 signaling in the neuroprotective mechanism of propolis in I/R rats. In this study, focal cerebral ischemia model was built by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 2 h followed by reperfusion. The investigation was carried out on 48 rats that were arranged into four groups (n = 12): the sham group, I/R control group, I/R + propolis (50 mg/kg) group and I/R + propolis (100 mg/kg) group. The results revealed that propolis preserved rats against neuronal injury induced by cerebral I/R. It significantly reduced neurological deficit scores and improved motor coordination and locomotor activity in I/R rats. Propolis antagonized the damage induced by cerebral I/R through suppression of malondialdehyde (MDA) and elevation of reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) and dopamine levels in the brain homogenates of I/R rats. Other ameliorations were also observed based on reduction of neurodegeneration and histological alterations in the brain tissues. These results also proposed that the neuroprotective effect of propolis might be related to upregulation of TGF-β1 and suppressed matrix metallopeptidase-9 (MMP9) mRNA expression.

Abdel-Rahman, R. F., S. M. Ezzat, H. A. Ogaly, R. M. Abd-Elsalam, A. F. Hessin, M. I. Fekry, D. I. N. A. F. Mansour, and S. O. Mohamed, "extract down-regulates protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B expression in a rat model of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a new insight into its antidiabetic mechanism.", Journal of nutritional science, vol. 9, pp. e2, 2020. Abstractjournal_of_nutritional_science.pdf

var. Jack (FD) is a well-known plant used in Malay folklore medicine to lower blood glucose in diabetic patients. For further research of the antihyperglycemic mechanisms, the protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B)-inhibitory effect of FD was analysed both and To optimise a method for FD extraction, water, 50, 70, 80, 90 and 95 % ethanol extracts were prepared and determined for their total phenolic and triterpene contents, and PTP1B-inhibition capacity. Among the tested extracts, 70 % ethanol FD extract showed a significant PTP1B inhibition (92·0 % inhibition at 200 µg/ml) and high phenolic and triterpene contents. A bioassay-guided fractionation of the 70 % ethanol extract led to the isolation of a new triterpene (3β,11β-dihydroxyolean-12-en-23-oic acid; F3) along with six known compounds. , 4 weeks' administration of 70 % ethanol FD extract (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg/d) to streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced type 2 diabetic rats reversed the abnormal changes of blood glucose, insulin, total Hb, GLUT2, lipid profile, and oxidative stress in liver and pancreas. Moreover, FD reduced the mRNA expression of the key gluconeogenic enzymes (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose 6-phosphatase) and restored insulin receptor and GLUT2 encoding gene () expression. In addition, FD significantly down-regulated the hepatic PTP1B gene expression. These results revealed that FD could potentially improve insulin sensitivity, suppress hepatic glucose output and enhance glucose uptake in type 2 diabetes mellitus through down-regulation of PTP1B. Together, our findings give scientific evidence for the traditional use of FD as an antidiabetic agent.

Soliman, G. A., R. F. Abdel-Rahman, H. A. Ogaly, H. N. Althurwi, R. M. Abd-Elsalam, F. F. Albaqami, and M. S. Abdel-Kader, "Extract Protects against Diabetes-Related Spermatogenic Dysfunction in Male Rats: Molecular and Biochemical Study.", Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), vol. 25, issue 22, 2020. Abstractmolecules-25-05255-v2.pdf

More than 90% of diabetic patients suffer from sexual dysfunction, including diminished sperm count, sperm motility, and sperm viability, and low testosterone levels. The effects of (MC) were studied by estimating the blood levels of insulin, glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), testosterone (TST), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH) in diabetic rats treated with 250 and 500 mg/kg b.w. of the total extract. Testicular antioxidants, epididymal sperm characteristics, testicular histopathology, and lesion scoring were also investigated. Testicular mRNA expression of apoptosis-related markers such as antiapoptotic B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) and proapoptotic Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) were evaluated by real-time PCR. Furthermore, caspase-3 protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. MC administration resulted in a significant reduction in blood glucose and HbA1c and marked elevation of serum levels of insulin, TST, and gonadotropins in diabetic rats. It induced a significant recovery of testicular antioxidant enzymes, improved histopathological changes of the testes, and decreased spermatogenic and Sertoli cell apoptosis. MC effectively inhibited testicular apoptosis, as evidenced by upregulation of Bcl-2 and downregulation of Bax and caspase-3. Moreover, reduction in apoptotic potential in MC-treated groups was confirmed by reduction in the Bax/Bcl-2 mRNA expression ratio.

Abdel-Rahman, R. F., S. A. El Awdan, R. R. Hegazy, D. I. N. A. F. Mansour, H. A. Ogaly, and M. Abdelbaset, "Neuroprotective effect of Crocus sativus against cerebral ischemia in rats.", Metabolic brain disease, vol. 35, issue 3, pp. 427-439, 2020. Abstractmetabolic_brain_disease.pdf

The present study aimed to investigate the role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the neuroprotective effect of Crocus sativus (saffron) against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/R) in rats. Four groups of a total forty I/R rats with 60-min occlusion followed by 48 h reperfusion or sham surgery were used. The sham and left-brain I/R control groups where treated with normal saline. The rats of the other two groups received saffron extract (100 or 200 mg/kg, ip, respectively) for 3 successive weeks prior to left-brain I/R. Other four doses of saffron extract were received by the rats of the last 2 groups 60 min prior to operation, during the surgery, and on days 1 and 2 following reperfusion. I/R group showed marked neurobehavioral, neurochemical and histopathological alterations. The results revealed a significant reduction in neurological deficit scores in the saffron-treated rats at both doses. Saffron significantly attenuated lipid peroxidation, decreased NO and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) contents in I/R-brain tissue. On the other hand, saffron reversed the depletion of GSH in the injured brain. Moreover, saffron treatment evidently reduced apoptosis as revealed by a decrease in caspase-3 and Bax protein expression with a marked decrease in the apoptotic neuronal cells compared to I/R group. In addition, saffron administration effectively upregulated the expression of VEGF in I/R-brain tissue. In conclusion, saffron treatment offers significant neuroprotection against I/R damage possibly through diminishing oxidative stress and apoptosis and enhancement of VEGF.

Abdel-Rahman, R. F., A. F. Hessin, M. Abdelbaset, H. A. Ogaly, R. M. Abd-Elsalam, and S. M. Hassan, "Antihypertensive Effects of Roselle-Olive Combination in L-NAME-Induced Hypertensive Rats", Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, vol. 2017, issue 2017, pp. 1-24, Submitted.
Mostafa, R. E., A. A. A. Salama, R. F. Abdel-Rahman, and H. A. Ogaly, "Hepato- and neuro-protective influences of biopropolis on thioacetamide-induced acute hepatic encephalopathy in rats", Canadian iournal of physiology and pharmacology, vol. 95, issue 2017, pp. 539–547, Submitted. cjpp-biopropolis.pdf
Ogaly, H. A., N. A. Eltablawy, A. M. El-Behairy, and R. M. Abd-Elsalam, "Hepatocyte Growth Factor Mediates the Antifibrogenic Action of Ocimum bacilicum Essential Oil against CCl4-Induced Liver Fibrosis in Rats", Molecules , vol. 20, issue 8, pp. 13518-13535, 2015.
Ogaly, H. A., A. A. Khalaf, M. A. Ibrahima, and Mona K Galal, "Influence of green tea extract on oxidative damage and apoptosis induced by deltamethrin in rat brain", Neurotoxicology and Teratology , vol. 50, pp. 23-31, 2015.