Removal of potentially toxic elements from contaminated soil and water using bone char compared to plant- and bone-derived biochars: A review

Citation:
Removal of potentially toxic elements from contaminated soil and water using bone char compared to plant- and bone-derived biochars: A review, Azeem, Muhammad, Shaheen Sabry M., Ali Amjad, Jeyasundar Parimala G. S. A., Latif Abdul, Abdelrahman Hamada, Li Ronghua, Almazroui Mansour, Niazi Nabeel Khan, Sarmah Ajit K., et al. , Journal of Hazardous Materials, Volume 427, p.128131, (2022) copy at www.tinyurl.com/y5syecuc

Abstract:

Conversion of hazardous waste materials to value-added products is of great interest from both agro-environmental and economic points of view. Bone char (BC) has been used for the removal of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) from contaminated water, however, its potential BC for the immobilization of PTEs in contaminated water and soil compared to bone (BBC)- and plant (PBC)-derived biochars has not been reviewed yet. This review presents an elaboration for the potentials of BC for the remediation of PTEs-contaminated water and soil in comparison with PBC and BBC. This work critically reviews the preparation and characterization of BC, BBC, and PBC and their PTEs removal efficiency from water and soils. The mechanisms of PTE removal by BC, BBC, and PBC are also discussed in relation to their physicochemical characteristics. The review demonstrates the key opportunities for using bone waste as feedstock for producing BC and BBC as promising low-cost and effective materials for the remediation of PTEs-contaminated water and soils and also elucidates the possible combinations of BC and BBC aiming to effectively immobilize PTEs in water and soils.

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