Landscape of Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Infections in Egypt: Survey and Literature Review.

El-Kholy, A., H. A. El-Mahallawy, N. Elsharnouby, M. abd elaziz, A. M. Helmy, and R. Kotb, "Landscape of Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Infections in Egypt: Survey and Literature Review.", Infection and drug resistance, vol. 14, pp. 1905-1920, 2021.


PURPOSE: This article is the first to review published reports on the prevalence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative infections in Egypt and gain insights into antimicrobial resistance (AMR) surveillance and susceptibility testing capabilities of Egyptian medical centers.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A literature review and online survey were conducted.

RESULTS: The online survey and literature review reported high prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae (19-85.24% of , and 10-87% of ), carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (35-100% of and 13.8-100% of ), carbapenem-resistant (10-100%), and carbapenem-resistant (15-70%) in Egypt. Risk factors for MDR Gram-negative infections were ventilated patients (67.4%), prolonged hospitalization (53.5%) and chronic disease (34.9%). Although antimicrobial surveillance capabilities were deemed at least moderate in most centers, lack of access to rapid AMR diagnostics, lack of use of local epidemiological data in treatment decision-making, lack of antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) programs, and lack of risk prediction tools were commonly reported by respondents.

CONCLUSION: This survey has highlighted the presence of knowledge gaps as well as limitations in the surveillance and monitoring capabilities of AMR in Egypt, with most laboratories lacking rapid diagnostics and molecular testing. Future efforts in Egypt should focus on tackling these issues via nationwide initiatives, including understanding the AMR trends in the country, capacity building of laboratories and their staff to correctly and timely identify AMR, and introducing newer antimicrobials for targeting emerging resistance mechanisms in Gram-negative species.