Antiviral treatment prioritization in HCV-infected patients with extrahepatic manifestations - An Egyptian perspective.

El-Fishawy, H., G. Saadi, M. Hassaballa, M. Hussein, W. Doss, G. Ragab, and R. Barsoum, "Antiviral treatment prioritization in HCV-infected patients with extrahepatic manifestations - An Egyptian perspective.", Journal of advanced research, vol. 7, issue 3, pp. 391-402, 2016 May.


Egypt, the single country with highest incidence of HCV infection in the world, has embarked on a government-sponsored mass treatment program using several combinations of DAAs. Recognizing the importance of extrahepatic manifestations, independently of the hepatic, a subcommittee was assigned to develop national guidelines for respective prioritizing indications and protocols. It evaluated the benefit of treating patients with different extrahepatic manifestations, and reviewed relevant clinical trials and guidelines concerning DAA combinations available in Egypt. The latter included Sofosbuvir plus either peg-interferon, Simeprevir, Ledipasvir or daclatasvir, and the Viekera family comprising paritaprevir/ritonavir + ombitasvir with (GT-1) or without (GT-4) Dasabuvir. Any of these protocols may be used with or without Ribavirin according to indication. A blueprint was subjected to peer debate in dedicated workshops in two national meetings and subsequently to an online professional review, eventually leading to a final report that was adopted by the health authorities. Seven compelling and 10 optional indications were identified for treating patients with predominantly extrahepatic manifestations. The former include kidney disease at different stages, cryoglobulinemic vasculitis and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Selected treatment protocols, were encoded and their use was prioritized on the basis of evidence of efficacy and safety. We concluded that any of the studied protocols may be used, preferably with ribavirin, for 12-week treatment in all patients with extrahepatic manifestations without cirrhosis and with eGFR above 30 ml/min/1.73 sqm. Ribavirin should be included in protocols for treating patients with compensated cirrhosis. Daclatasvir-based protocols are recommended for decompensated cirrhosis, while the Viekera family is recommended in patients with eGFR < 30 ml/min/1.73 sqm, including those on dialysis. In kidney-transplanted patents, caution is due to avoidance of the pharmacokinetic interaction with the Cytochrome-P450 enzyme system, in-between immunosuppressive agents and most DAAs, particularly the Viekera family.