Marzouk, D., H. El Deeb, Y. Baghdady, and G. Youssef, "Correlation between central aortic stiffness indices and cardiac mechanics in hypertensive patients: new insights from speckle tracking echocardiography imaging", European heart journal , vol. 43, issue Supplement 2, 2022.
Youssef, G., M. Mohamed, M. A. Hamid, and D. El Remisy, "Reasons behind high rate of non-compliance to scheduled office visits in hypertensive patients: results from the Egyptian registry of specialized hypertension clinics.", The Egyptian heart journal : (EHJ) : official bulletin of the Egyptian Society of Cardiology, vol. 74, issue 1, pp. 45, 2022. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Hypertensive patients' compliance to the clinic's follow-up visits is associated with a better blood pressure control. The aim of this study was to detect the reasons of non-compliance to office visits in Egyptian hypertensive patients.

RESULTS: This is an observational, prospective, cross-sectional research study where patients were enrolled from the registry of the specialized hypertension clinics of 9 university hospitals. Those who attended less than 3 office visits, throughout the registry period, were considered non-compliant and were contacted through the phone. A simple questionnaire was prepared, which included questions about the reasons of non-compliance to follow up. There were 3014 patients eligible for inclusion in this study but only 649 patients (21.5%) completed the questionnaire. Patients claimed that the reasons of non-compliance to the follow up visits in the specialized hypertension clinics were as follows: 444 patients (68.4%) preferred to follow up elsewhere mostly in pharmacies, 53 patients (8.2%) claimed that the healthcare service was unsatisfactory, 94 patients (14.5%) were asymptomatic, and 110 patients (16.9%) said that the clinic was far from their homes. Despite non-compliance to office visits, 366 patients (59.2%) were compliant to their antihypertensive medications and 312 (48.1%) patients were compliant to salt restriction. About 34% of patients used herbs, mainly hibiscus, as adjuvant to their antihypertensive medications.

CONCLUSIONS: Reasons for non-compliance to office visits in hypertensive patients were either patient-related, or healthcare-related. To improve patients' compliance, physicians need to educate their patients about hypertension, patients need to follow their doctors' instructions as regard medications, salt restriction and scheduled office visits, and governments need to provide better and cheaper healthcare services.

El Fol, A., W. Ammar, Yasser Sharaf, and G. Youssef, "The central arterial stiffness parameters in decompensated versus compensated states of heart failure: a paired comparative cohort study.", The Egyptian heart journal : (EHJ) : official bulletin of the Egyptian Society of Cardiology, vol. 74, issue 1, pp. 2, 2022. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Arterial stiffness is strongly linked to the pathogenesis of heart failure and the development of acute decompensation in patients with stable chronic heart failure. This study aimed to compare arterial stiffness indices in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) during the acute decompensated state, and three months later after hospital discharge during the compensated state.

RESULTS: One hundred patients with acute decompensated HFrEF (NYHA class III and IV) and left ventricular ejection fraction ≤ 35% were included in the study. During the initial and follow-up visits, all patients underwent full medical history taking, clinical examination, transthoracic echocardiography, and non-invasive pulse wave analysis by the Mobil-O-Graph 24-h device for measurement of arterial stiffness. The mean age was 51.6 ± 6.1 years and 80% of the participants were males. There was a significant reduction of the central arterial stiffness indices in patients with HFrEF during the compensated state compared to the decompensated state. During the decompensated state, patients presented with NYHA FC IV (n = 64) showed higher AI (24.5 ± 10.0 vs. 16.8 ± 8.6, p < 0.001) and pulse wave velocity (9.2 ± 1.3 vs. 8.5 ± 1.2, p = 0.021) than patients with NYHA FC III, and despite the relatively smaller number of females, they showed higher stiffness indices than males.

CONCLUSIONS: Central arterial stiffness indices in patients with HFrEF were significantly lower in the compensated state than in the decompensated state. Patients with NYHA FC IV and female patients showed higher stiffness indices in their decompensated state of heart failure.

Taha, H. S., G. Youssef, R. M. Omar, A. M. Kamal El Din, A. A. Shams El Din, and M. S. Meshaal, "Efficacy and speed of conversion of recent onset atrial fibrillation using oral propafenone versus parenteral amiodarone: A randomized controlled comparative study.", Indian heart journal, 2022. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation is the most commonly encountered arrhythmia. Several antiarrhythmic agents are effective in restoring and maintaining sinus rhythm.

AIM OF THE WORK: To compare the efficacy and rapidity of conversion of recent onset atrial fibrillation using oral propafenone versus intravenous infusion of amiodarone.

METHODS: The study included 200 patients with recent onset atrial fibrillation. Patients were equally divided into 2 groups; group A where intravenous infusion amiodarone was given and group B where oral propafenone was administrated. The effectiveness and the time needed for conversion of atrial fibrillation to sinus rhythm were compared in both groups.

RESULTS: The success of conversion of atrial fibrillation to sinus rhythm was 83% in group A and 85% in group B, p-value = 0.699. The time elapsed from drug administration till conversion of atrial fibrillation was 9.07 ± 5.04 hours in group A versus 3.9 ± 1.54 hours in group B, p-value = 0.001. In both groups, patients who showed failed conversion had a significantly larger left atrial diameter and a significantly higher high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) level.

CONCLUSION: Oral propafenone was faster than parenteral amiodarone in the conversion of recent onset atrial fibrillation to sinus rhythm. Patients with failed conversion had a bigger left atrial diameter and a higher hsCRP when compared to patients with successful conversion.

Youssef, G., "Salt and hypertension: current views", E-journal of Cardiology Practice, vol. 22, issue 3, 2022.
Youssef, G., A. El Fol, W. Ammar, and Y Sharaf, "Comparing the central arterial stiffness indices in the decompensated and compensated states of heart failure: a cohort study", European Heart Journal, vol. 42, issue 1, 2021. ehab724.2886.pdf
Youssef, G., M. Hosny, W. Ramadan, and E. Baligh, "Incidence of maternal and fetal complications in pregnant with mechanical prosthetic cardiac valves: a cohort study", European Heart Journal, vol. 42, issue 1, 2021. ehab724.2886.pdf
Ghareeb, S., G. Youssef, H. S. Ghareeb, H. A. El-Mageed, M. H. Mesalm, R. Talaat, A. Eltawil, D. M. Hasan, and M. M. Ibrahim, "Results of a project to calibrate mercury sphygmomanometer blood pressure-measuring devices in Egypt.", Journal of human hypertension, vol. 35, pp. 921-926, 2021. Abstractcalibration_paper_2021.pdf

Hypertension (HTN) is a common health problem and a major cardiovascular risk factor. Accurate measurement of blood pressure (BP) is mandatory for proper diagnosis and follow-up. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of mercury sphygmomanometer BP-measuring devices in public hospitals in Cairo, Egypt. Fifty public hospitals were included, and 10% of all mercury sphygmomanometer devices in each hospital were tested. Assessment included physical condition (e.g., mercury status, lid of the device, state of the rubber tubes), leakage rate, and calibration accuracy (as compared with a reference device). Devices were approved as accurate when they could successfully pass all three assessment tests. The total number of sphygmomanometer devices was 465. The overall pass rate was 1.3% (six devices). Twenty-five (5.2%) devices passed all of the physical tests, 50 (10.8%) passed the leakage test, and 50 (16.5%) passed the calibration accuracy test. There were 162 (34.8%) devices that showed a high leakage rate (>80 mmHg) and thus were not tested for calibration accuracy. In conclusion, most of the mercury sphygmomanometer devices in hospitals are neglected and not checked regularly for any errors. A plan should be made to gradually replace those failed devices with new, validated, and well-calibrated devices, preferably devices that do not contain mercury.

Youssef, G., "Valvular heart diseases in women", Egyptian Heart Journal, vol. 73, pp. 58, 2021. valvular_hd_review_article.pdf
Abdelaal, A., G. Youssef, A. ELFaramawy, D. El Remisy, H. El Deeb, W. E. Arousssy, and M. M. Ibrahim, "Registry of the Egyptian specialized hypertension clinics: Sex‐related differences in clinical characteristics and hypertension management among low socioeconomic hypertensive patients", Journal of clinical hypertension, pp. 1-9, 2021.