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Salem, A. M., F. K. Adham, and C. J. Picard, "Survey of the Genetic Diversity of Forensically Important Chrysomya (Diptera: Calliphoridae) from Egypt", Journal of Medical Entomology, vol. 52, issue 3, pp. 320-328, 2015. Abstract

Minimum postmortem interval estimations of a corpse using blow fly larvae in medicolegal investigations require correct identification and the application of appropriate developmental data of the identified fly species. Species identification of forensically relevant blow flies could be very difficult and time consuming when specimens are damaged or in the event of morphologically indistinguishable immature stages, which are most common at crime scenes. In response to this, an alternative, accurate determination of species may depend on sequencing and molecular techniques for identification. Chrysomyinae specimens (n = 158) belonging to three forensically important species [Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann), Chrysomya megacephala (F.), and Chrysomya marginalis (Wiedemann)] (Diptera: Calliphoridae) were collected from four locations in Egypt (Giza, Dayrout, Minya, and North Sinai) and sequenced across the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene. Phylogenetic analyses using neighbor–joining, maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony methods resulted in the same topological structure and confirmed DNA based identification of all specimens. Interspecific divergence between pairs of species was 5.3% (C. marginalis–C. megacephala), 7% (C. albiceps–C. megacephala), and 8% (C. albiceps–C. marginalis). These divergences are sufficient to confirm the utility of cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene in the molecular identification of these flies in Egypt. Importantly, the maximum intraspecific divergence among individuals within a species was <1% and the least nucleotide divergence between species used for phylogenetic analysis was 3.6%. This study highlights the need for thorough and diverse sampling to capture all of the possible genetic diversity if DNA barcoding is to be used for molecular identification.

Adham, F. K., N. A. ZOHDY, and M. A. YERAMIAN, "Studies on the mating behaviour of the flesh fly Parasarcophaga argyrostoma (Robineau – Desvoidy). ", J. Egypt. Soc. Parasitol, vol. 10, pp. 349-357, 1980.
Adham, F. K., "Studies on laboratory oviposiotion behaviour of Aedes caspius (Diptera, Culcidae). ", Acta Ent. Bohemoslov, vol. 76, pp. 99-103, 1979.
YAMANY, A. B. E. E. R. S., F. K.Adham, and H. E. I. N. Z. MELHORN, "Structural changes of the follicular cells during development stages of the malaria vector mosquitoes Anopheles pharoensis (Diptera : Culicidae) in egypt", Parasitol, vol. 113, issue 11, pp. 4233-4241, 2014.
Adham, F. K., M. G. R, and A. I. Ibrahim, "Some Aquatic insects and invertebrates as bioindicators for the evaluation of bacteriological pollution in El-Zomor and El- Mariotya canals, Giza, Egypt", Egypt. Acad. J. biolog. Sc., vol. 2(1), pp. 125-131, 2009.
Adham, F. K., A. B. D. E. L. M. E. G. I. U. D. AFAF, T. A. W. F. I. K. A. MOHAMED, and E. L. K. H. A. T. T. E. B. M.( RABBAB, "Seasonal incidence of the carrion breeding blowflies Lucilia sericata (Meigen) and Chrysomya albiceps (Wied.) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in Abu Rawash farm Giza.", Egypt. Vet. Med. J., Giza. , vol. 49, issue 3, pp. 377-383, 2001.
Adham, F. K., A. B. D. E. L. M. E. G. I. U. D. AFAF, T. A. W. F. I. K. A. MOHAMED, and E. L. K. H. A. T. T. E. B. M.( RABBAB, "Seasonal incidence of the carrion breeding blowflies Lucilia sericata (Meigen) and Chrysomya albiceps (Wied.) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in Abu Rawash farm Giza.", Egypt. Vet. Med. J., Giza. , vol. 49, issue 3, pp. 377-383, 2001.
Adham, F. K., H. E. I. N. Z. MELHORN, and A. B. E. E. R. S. YAMANY, "Scanning electron microcopy of the four larval instars of lymphatic filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) (Diptera: Culicidae)", Parasitol. Res., vol. 112(6), pp. 2307 – 2312, 2013.