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Salem, A. M., F. K. Adham, and C. J. Picard, "Survey of the Genetic Diversity of Forensically Important Chrysomya (Diptera: Calliphoridae) from Egypt", Journal of Medical Entomology, vol. 52, issue 3, pp. 320-328, 2015. Abstract

Minimum postmortem interval estimations of a corpse using blow fly larvae in medicolegal investigations require correct identification and the application of appropriate developmental data of the identified fly species. Species identification of forensically relevant blow flies could be very difficult and time consuming when specimens are damaged or in the event of morphologically indistinguishable immature stages, which are most common at crime scenes. In response to this, an alternative, accurate determination of species may depend on sequencing and molecular techniques for identification. Chrysomyinae specimens (n = 158) belonging to three forensically important species [Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann), Chrysomya megacephala (F.), and Chrysomya marginalis (Wiedemann)] (Diptera: Calliphoridae) were collected from four locations in Egypt (Giza, Dayrout, Minya, and North Sinai) and sequenced across the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene. Phylogenetic analyses using neighbor–joining, maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony methods resulted in the same topological structure and confirmed DNA based identification of all specimens. Interspecific divergence between pairs of species was 5.3% (C. marginalis–C. megacephala), 7% (C. albiceps–C. megacephala), and 8% (C. albiceps–C. marginalis). These divergences are sufficient to confirm the utility of cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene in the molecular identification of these flies in Egypt. Importantly, the maximum intraspecific divergence among individuals within a species was <1% and the least nucleotide divergence between species used for phylogenetic analysis was 3.6%. This study highlights the need for thorough and diverse sampling to capture all of the possible genetic diversity if DNA barcoding is to be used for molecular identification.

Shoukry, A., and F. K. Adham, ". Studies on the biology of Anopheles pharoensis Theo. in Egypt", J. Egypt. Soc. Parasitol, vol. 14, pp. 99-104, 1984.
Shoukry, A., N. F. SHEHATA, and F. K. Adham, "The effect of new Juvenile hormone Analogues on the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) ", The first National Conference of Pests amd Disseases of Vegetables and Field crops in Egypt, Ismailia-Egypt, october 1985.