Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel xanthine derivatives as potential apoptotic antitumor agents

Citation:
Hisham, M., B. G. M. Youssif, E. E. A. Osman, A. M. Hayallah, and M. A. El-Aziz, Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel xanthine derivatives as potential apoptotic antitumor agents, , vol. 176, pp. 117 - 128, 2019.

Abstract:

A series of novel xanthine/NO donor hybrids containing 1,3,8-trisubstituted or 1,8-disubstituted xanthine derivatives were designed and synthesized. The synthesized compounds were tested in a cell viability assay using human mammary gland epithelial cell line (MCF-10A) where all the compounds exhibited no cytotoxic effects and more than 90% cell viability at a concentration of 50 μM. The oxime containing compounds 7a-b and 17-24 were more active as antiproliferative agents than their non-oxime congeners 6a-b and 9-16. Hydroxyimino-phenethyl scaffold compounds 17-24 were more active than the hydroxyimino-ethyl phenyl acetamide 7a-b derivatives. Compounds 18–20 and 22-24 exhibited inhibition of EGFR with IC50 ranging from 0.32 to 2.88 μM. Compounds 18-20 and 22-24 increased the level of active caspase 3 by 4–8 folds, compared to the control cells in Panc-1 cell lines compared to doxorubicin as a reference drug. Compounds 18, 22 and 23 were the most caspase-3 inducers. Compounds 22 and 23 increased the levels of caspase-8 and 9 indicating activation of both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways and showed potent induction of Bax, down-regulation of Bcl-2 protein levels and over-expression of cytochrome c levels in Panc-1 human pancreas cancer cells. Compound 23 exhibited mainly cell cycle arrest at the Pre-G1 and G2/M phases in the cell cycle analysis of Panc-1 cell line. The drug likeness profiles of compounds 18-20 and 22-24 were predicted to have good to excellent drug likeness profiles specially compounds 18-20 and 23. Finally molecular docking study was performed at the EGFR active site to suggest thier possible binding mode. The hydroxyimino-phenethyl scaffold compounds 17-24 represent an interesting starting point to optimize their pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics profiles.

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