Management of liver disease patients in different clinical situations during COVID-19 pandemic.

Zaky, Samy, Mohamed Alboraie, Mohamed Elbadry, Mohamed A. Metwally, Ahmed Abdelaziz, Yasser Fouad, Sherief Abd-Elsalam, Abdelmajeed Mahmoud, Gamal Shiha, Amin Abdel Baki et al. "Management of liver disease patients in different clinical situations during COVID-19 pandemic." Egyptian liver journal 11, no. 1 (2021): 21.


Chronic liver diseases are common worldwide, especially in developing countries. The rapid spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)/(COVID-19) leads to the infection of many patients with underlying chronic liver diseases. As a relatively new disease, management of COVID-19, in the context of chronic liver disease, is mainly based on the experience of the treating physician and the available data. In this review, we summarize the available evidence about the management of liver disease patients, in the context of COVID-19 infection, which can increase the severity of viral hepatitis B. Also, its clearance in HBV patients is delayed. A sixfold increased severity of COVID-19 was reported in obese patients with metabolic associated fatty liver disease (MAFDL). In patients with autoimmune liver disease (AILD), it is not recommended to change their immunosuppressive therapy (as long as they are not infected with COVID-19), in order to avoid a flare of liver disease. However, immunosuppressant drugs should be modified, in the case of infection with COVID-19. To date, no data suggest an increased risk or severity in metabolic liver diseases, such as hemochromatosis, Wilson's disease, or alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency. Patients with liver cirrhosis should be carefully managed with minimum exposure to healthcare facilities. Basic investigations for follow-up can be scheduled at wider intervals; if patients need admission, this should be in COVID-19-clean areas. Patients with hepatocellular carcinomas may have a poor prognosis according to preliminary reports from China. The course of COVID-19 in liver transplant recipients on immunosuppression seems to have a benign course, based on few reports in children and adults. The hepatotoxicity of COVID-19 drugs ranges from mild liver enzyme elevation to a flare of underlying liver diseases. Therefore, the decision should be customized. Telemedicine can minimize the exposure of healthcare workers and patients to infection with COVID-19 and decrease the consumption of personal protective equipment.