HCV and HEV: two players in an Egyptian village, a study of prevalence, incidence, and co-infection.

Elhendawy, Mohammed, Lobna Abo-Ali, Sherief Abd-Elsalam, Maha M. Hagras, Ibrahim Kabbash, Loai Mansour, Sherief Atia, Gamal Esmat, Abdel-Raouf Abo-ElAzm, Ferial El-Kalla et al. "HCV and HEV: two players in an Egyptian village, a study of prevalence, incidence, and co-infection." Environmental science and pollution research international 27, no. 27 (2020): 33659-33667.


The highest recorded hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence worldwide is in Egypt. A high prevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in chronic liver disease has been reported. The aim of this study was to study prevalence, incidence, and outcome of HCV infection in an Egyptian Nile Delta village and the relation between HEV infection and HCV-related chronic hepatic affection. This prospective cohort study included 2085 Nagreej village residents. Mass HCV screening was conducted and testing for HEV antibodies among HCV-infected patients performed. The annual incidence of HCV was recorded. Five hundred five (24.22%) of the tested villagers were positive for HCV RNA. Prevalence escalated with age and male sex. The main recorded risk factors were a history of surgery, dental procedures, hospitalization, blood transfusion, and antischistosomal treatment. HEV IgG antibody was positive in 71.4% of individuals with chronic HCV and 96.1% with advanced liver disease (cirrhosis ± hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)). After 1 year, 29 of the 1390 HCV Ab negative villagers had a positive HCV PCR, placing an annual incidence of new HCV infections at 2.09%. The Egyptian HCV prevalence remains high with infection particularly among the elderly. The annual incidence in a small Nile Delta village is 2.086%. HCV-HEV co-infection may lead to a worse prognosis among Egyptians with chronic liver disease.