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Ibrahim, Sherif A., Sayed F. Abdelwahab, Mona M. Mohamed, Ahmed M. Osman, Eman Fathy, Kamal S. Al-Badry, Nabil Al-Kady, Gamal Esmat, and Maged M. Al-Sherbiny. "T cells are depleted in HCV-induced hepatocellular carcinoma patients: possible role of apoptosis and p53." RETROVIROLOGY 3 (2006). Abstract
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Imam Waked, Gamal Shiha, Roula Qaqish B., Gamal Esmat, Mohamed Hassany Ayman Yosry, Mohammad Mohey A. Reham Soliman, Naglaa Allam, Tarik Asselah Naglaa Zayed, Rebecca Redman Coleen Hall, and Wahid Doss Niloufar Mobashery. "Ombitasvir, paritaprevir, and ritonavir plus ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C virus genotype 4 infection in Egyptian patients with or without compensated cirrhosis (AGATE-II): a multicentre, phase 3, partly randomised open-label trial." The Lancet Gastroenterology and Hepatology 111, no. 1 (2016): 36-44.
Iman Ramzy, Aisha Elsharkawy, Rabab Fouad Hanan Abdel Hafez, Mohammad El-Sayed Hany khattab Maissa El Raziky, Wafaa El Akel, Amr Radwan Mohamed Shehata, Marwa Elsharkawy, and Gamal Esmat. "Impact of old Schistosomiasis infection on the use of transient elastography (Fibroscan) for staging of ļ¬brosis in chronic HCV patients." Acta Tropica 176 (2017): 283-287.impact_of_schisto_on_fibroscan.pdf
Ismail, Sohair, Hanan Abdel Hafez, Samar K. Darweesh, Kamal Hassan Kamal, and Gamal Esmat. "Virologic response and breakthrough in chronic hepatitis B Egyptian patients receiving lamivudine therapy." Annals of gastroenterology : quarterly publication of the Hellenic Society of Gastroenterology 27, no. 4 (2014): 380-386. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Lamivudine monotherapy is effective in suppressing hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication to undetectable levels by PCR, in ameliorating liver disease and to some extent in achieving HBsAg seroconversion. This study aimed at assessing the virological and biochemical responses as well as breakthrough in HBeAg-negative chronic HBV (CHB) Egyptian patients receiving lamivudine therapy.

METHODS: This retrospective study included 140 CHB patients with positive serum HBV-DNA by quantitative PCR assays and negative HBeAg who had never received prior anti-viral therapy for HBV. According to duration of lamivudine therapy (100 mg/day) patients were grouped into: group I (n=59) who received lamivudine for 1 year, group II (n=50) who received lamivudine for 2 years, and group III (n=31) who received lamivudine for 3 years.

RESULTS: In group I, 76.3% patients had virologic response but this was reduced in group II and group III to 72% and 67.7% respectively. None of the patients in group I developed virologic breakthrough, whereas 12% and 25.8% in groups II and III respectively developed breakthrough. In group I, 25% of patients having high pre-treatment viremia showed virologic response compared to 84.6% and 83.3% having mild and moderate viremia respectively (P<0.01). However, in groups II and III, there was no significant relationship between pre-treatment viremia and virologic response. No significant relationship was found between pre-treatment viral load and incidence of breakthrough within each group.

CONCLUSION: Lamivudine remains one of the antiviral therapies for HBeAg negative CHB patients. The rates of maintained virologic and biochemical responses to lamivudine decrease in time due to selection of drug-resistant mutants and, hence, breakthrough.

Ismail, S. A., M. K. Mohamed, H. Mansour, C. Rekacewicz, R. R. Gad, M. El-Houssinie, Sharaf N. M. El-Din, M. El-Daly, S. El-Kafrawy, M. Abdel-Hamid et al. "Pegylated interferon alpha-2a for treatment of acute hepatitis C in Egypt (ANRS 1213 trial)." JOURNAL OF CLINICAL VIROLOGY 36 (2006): S137. Abstract
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