abouelela, Y. S., N. A. E. Yasin, A. F. Elkarmoty, M. A. Khattab, K. H. El-Shahat, and E. A. Abdelnaby, "Ovarian, uterine and luteal hemodynamic variations between pregnant and non-pregnant pluriparous Egyptian buffalos with special reference to their anatomical and histological features.", Theriogenology, vol. 173, pp. 173-182, 2021. Abstract

This study determined the ovarian, uterine, and luteal hemodynamic variations using Doppler between pregnant and non-pregnant pluriparous buffalos in relation to their anatomical and histological basics during the first 31 days after natural mating. Adult healthy cyclic Egyptian buffalo (n = 10) were selected and categorized into two groups; group 1 (n = 5) was mated naturally by a fertile bull during the late estrus phase, and group 2 (n = 5) was not mated. Animals were subjected to Doppler ultrasonography to evaluate luteal, ovarian, and uterine blood flows from day 7 until day 31 post-mating. Besides, three pregnant (one month) and other non-pregnant uterus (n = 6) were obtained from a local abattoir to study the anatomical and histological features. Our results revealed that the luteal, ovarian, and uterine arteries cross-sectional diameters/mm increased (P < 0.05) from day 7 till day 31. Resistance (RI) and pulsatility indices (PI) decreased linearly (P < 0.05) in pregnant buffalos till day 31, but the peak systolic, end diastolic velocities and flow volume of those arteries were increased. Additionally, luteal colored areas away and toward CL were increased (P < 0.05) in the pregnant group compared to non-pregnant ones. There was a significant (P < 0.05) increase in the lumen diameter of luteal, ovarian, and uterine artery sections in pregnant buffalos compared to those of non-pregnant ones. While the mean value of tunica media's thickness of both luteal and uterine artery was significantly higher in non-pregnant buffalos than pregnant ones, except for that of the ovarian artery. Additionally, the ovarian and uterine artery tunica muscularis relative area % was (P < 0.05) higher in pregnant buffalos than in non-pregnant ones, except for that of the luteal artery. It was concluded that in pregnant buffalos, ovarian, uterine, and luteal blood flows were improved from the first week until 31 days post-mating via a decline in both Doppler indices with an increase in Doppler velocities and blood flow volume in relation to their histological changes based on their anatomical architecture in comparison to non-pregnant one.

Abdelnaby, E. A., I. A. Emam, and A. M. Fadl, "Assessment of the accuracy of testicular dysfunction detection in male donkey (Equus asinus) with the aid of colour-spectral Doppler in relation to plasma testosterone and serum nitric oxide levels.", Reproduction in domestic animals = Zuchthygiene, vol. 56, issue 5, pp. 764-774, 2021. Abstract

This study aimed to determine the usefulness of colour and pulsed Doppler modes for the accurate diagnosis of donkeys suffering from subfertility to determine whether testicular vascularity assessment could be an indicator for sperm functionality. The study sample was composed of 10 male donkeys with normospermia (control group) and 10 donkeys with hypospermia. Animals underwent scrotal circumference measurement, testicular Doppler examination, seminal evaluation, blood sampling and hormonal assay. Semen volume and concentration were significantly (p ≤ .05) lower in the subfertile group (30.25 ± 1.22 ml and 89.44 ± 2.55 × 10 /ml) as compared with the control group (82.76 ± 1.65 ml and 452.78 ± 1.25 × 10 /ml), and total sperm/ejaculation was significantly (p ≤ .05) higher in the normal donkeys (28.30 ± 2.32 × 10 /total ejaculated) as compared with the subfertile group. Intratesticular coloured area showed a marked decline in the hypospermic males. There was no significant difference between the two groups in testosterone level, although the normal group showed an increase in nitric oxide metabolites. Both Doppler indices of the three branches of the testicular artery were elevated significantly (p ≤ .05) in abnormal donkeys, whereas Doppler peak systolic and end-diastolic velocities were increased in the normal group. Male donkeys with subfertility demonstrated lower arterial vascularity parameters in the form of intratesticular coloured area and blood flow rate; therefore, the most optimal parameters for differentiating subfertile hypospermic from normospermic donkeys were found to be the two Doppler indices, velocities parameters, testicular blood flow rate and nitric oxide levels.

Abdelnaby, E. A., A. A. M. El-Maaty, and D. A. El-Badry, "Evaluation of ovarian hemodynamics by color and spectral Doppler in cows stimulated with three sources of follicle-stimulating hormone.", Reproductive biology, vol. 21, issue 1, pp. 100478, 2021. Abstract

This study hypothesized that ovarian response for superovulation is better when using compounds containing luteinizing hormone (LH). To compare the ovarian responses and the ovarian blood flow using three gonadotropins, three equal groups of Holstein cows (N = 18) were treated with Pluset (P), Follitropin (F), and eCG (G). The ovarian response was evaluated from the day of starting treatments (Day -5) till Day 5 after ovulation using Doppler ultrasound. Results revealed that the ovarian arteries pulsatility index (PI), peak systolic velocity (PSV), and the blood flow volume (BFV) varied (P < 0.0001) between both ovarian arteries. Cows treated with P had low number of small and medium follicles and a high number of the large follicles on Day -1. Cows treated with F showed low (P = 0.0001) number and percentage of colored follicles and high % of ovulated follicles (P=0.0001) that obtained high colored areas (P = 0.043) and colored area % (P = 0.001). The G produced more (P = 0.001) colored follicles (Days -1, 0) of low area. Both P and G had the same higher (P = 0.0001) percentages of colored follicles (>80 %) on Day-1 than F (<60 %). F and P had higher ovulated colored follicles % than G. P obtained nearly the same ovulated follicles diameters and areas as F with higher antrum area (P = 0.029) but lower colored area (P = 0.043) and colored area % (P = 0.001). In conclusion, the number and the doses of gonadotropin injections and the side of the ovary influenced the ovarian response.

Abdelnaby, E. A., and A. M. Abo El-Maaty, "Melatonin and CIDR improved the follicular and luteal haemodynamics, uterine and ovarian arteries vascular perfusion, ovarian hormones and nitric oxide in cyclic cows.", Reproduction in domestic animals = Zuchthygiene, vol. 56, issue 3, pp. 498-510, 2021. Abstract

This study hypothesizes that melatonin with exogenous progesterone (CIDR) can improve follicular, luteal, ovarian and uterine haemodynamic of heat-stressed cows. Holstein cows (N = 12) studied for two spontaneous oestrous cycles during winter then divided equally during summer into the CIDR group received CIDR for 7 days and the melatonin group (Mel) received three injections of melatonin (75 mg/head) at the CIDR insertion, removal and ovulation days. Blood samples were collected to assay oestradiol (E2), progesterone (P4) and nitric oxide (NO). On day 0 (Ovulation), Mel had more small follicles (p < .05), higher ipsilateral and contralateral ovarian arteries (Ov.A.) peak systolic velocity (PSV), higher ipsilateral uterine artery (Ut.A.) PSV (p = .031) and blood flow volume (BFV), also Mel elevated contralateral Ut.A. PSV and BFV (p < .0001) but lowered contra Ut.A. pulsatility index (PI, p < .0001), E2 (p < .01) and NO (p < .0001). Mel increased the corpus luteum diameter (CL, p < .001), coloured area (p < .007) and P4 (p < .0001) on day 5 and reduced them (p < .05; p < .01) on Day 14. On day 10, Mel obtained CL diameter (p < .03) and coloured area (p < .002) of spontaneous that was higher than CIDR and decreased P4 (p < .003). Mel increased CL diameter, area and coloured area and decreased them thereafter. Mel increased the ipsilateral ovarian and uterine arteries PSV and BFV before ovulation and until day 8. Mel increased P4 and decreased NO until days 6 and 14. In conclusion, the improvement in follicular, luteal, ovarian and uterine haemodynamic and the decrease of NO production proved our hypothesis Melatonin doses higher than 75 mg/head is recommended to improve the heat-stressed cow's fertility.

Abdelnaby, E. A., I. A. Emam, N. Y. Salem, E. S. Ramadan, M. S. Khattab, H. A. Farghali, and N. A. E. A. kader, "Uterine hemodynamic patterns, oxidative stress, and chromoendoscopy in mares with endometritis", Theriogenology , vol. 158, pp. 112-120, 2020.
Abdelnaby, E. A., "Hemodynamic changes in arterial flow velocities throughout the first six months of pregnancy in buffalo heifers by Doppler ultrasonography", Asian Pacific Journal of Reproduction , vol. 9 , issue 4, pp. 204, 2020.
Abdelnaby, E. A., "Higher doses of melatonin affect ovarian and middle uterine arteries vascular blood flow and induce oestrus earlier in acyclic ewes", Reproduction in domestic animals , vol. 55 , issue 7 , pp. 763-769, 2020.
Abdelnaby, E. A., and A. M. A. El-Maaty, "Effect of the side of ovulation on the uterine morphometry, blood flow, progesterone, oestradiol and nitric oxide during spontaneous and induced oestrus in lactating dairy cows", Reproduction in Domestic Animals , vol. 55 , issue 7 , pp. 851-860, 2020.
Abdelnaby, E. A., "Hemodynamic changes evaluated by Doppler ultrasonographic technology in the ovaries and uterus of dairy cattle after the puerperium", Reproductive biology, vol. Volume 20 , issue 2, pp. 202-209, 2020.