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Elkhadem, A., and S. Wanees, "Fluoride releasing sealants may possess minimal cariostatic effect on adjacent surfaces.", Evidence-based dentistry, vol. 16, issue 1, pp. 12, 2015 Mar. Abstract

DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial.

INTERVENTION: Children with at least two sound permanent first molars and the presence of at least one sound distal surface of adjacent second primary molar were eligible. Children were randomised into three groups. In group one first permanent molars were sealed with a high-viscosity glass ionomer cement (GIC group; n = 926), group two received a resin-based fluoride containing sealant (RBF group; n = 923) and group three a resin-based sealant without fluoride (RB group; n = 927). Two examiners blind to group allocation conducted examinations at 30 months. Sealant retention and caries at D1-D3 levels was assessed. Bitewing radiographs were taken.

OUTCOME MEASURE: Caries prevalence and incidence rate ratios were calculated.

RESULTS: Two thousand seven hundred and seventy-six children were enrolled; the number of dropouts were similar in each group (GIC group; n = 75), (RBF group; n = 67), (RB group; n = 77). The prevalence of affected surfaces was significantly lower in the GIC (p = .03) and FRB groups (p = .04). Fewer new caries developed on the distal surfaces of the second primary molars in the GIC group than in the other two groups. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were: 0.70 (95% CI: 0.50, 0.68; p < .01) for GIC vs. RB; 0.89 (95% CI: 0.89, 1.28; p = .10) for GIC vs. FRB and 0.79 (95% CI: 0.53, 1.04; p = .005) for FRB vs RB. Partial sealant loss was higher in the GIC group (76 molars; 2.95%), compared with FRB (52 molars; 1.41%), RB group (50 molars;1.35%).

CONCLUSIONS: Fluoride-releasing sealants (high-viscosity GIC and fluoride RB) were demonstrated to provide protection against caries on the distal surface of second primary molars. This preventive strategy might contribute to maintaining the integrity of the mesial surfaces of the first permanent molars.

Makar, A. B., K. E. McMartin, M. Palese, and T. R. Tephly, "Formate assay in body fluids: application in methanol poisoning.", Biochemical medicine, vol. 13, issue 2, pp. 117-26, 1975 Jun. Abstract