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Silen, W., T. E. Machen, and J. G. Forte, "Acid-base balance in amphibian gastric mucosa.", The American journal of physiology, vol. 229, issue 3, pp. 721-30, 1975 Sep. Abstract

It has been established that H+ secretion can be maintained in frog stomach in the absence of exogenous CO2 by using a nutrient bathing fluid containing 25 mM H2PO4 (pH approximately equal to 4.5) or by lowering the pH of a nonbuffered nutrient solution to about 3.0-3.6. Exogenous CO2 in the presence of these nutrient solutions uniformly caused a marked decrease in H+ secretion, PD, adn short-circuit current (Isc) and an increase in transmucosal resistance (R). Elevation of nutrient [k+] to 83 mM reduced R significantly but transiently without change in H+ when nutrient pH less than 5.0, whereas R returned to base line and H+ increased when nutrient pH greater than 5.0. Acidification of the nutrient medium in the presence of exogenous CO2 results in inhibition of the secretory pump, probably by decreasing intracellular pH, and also interferes with conductance at the nutrient membrane. Removal of exogenous CO2 from standard bicarbonate nutrient solution reduced by 50% the H+, PD, and Isc without change in R; K+-free nutrient solutions reverse these changes in Isc and PD but not in H+. The dropping PD and rising R induced by K+-free nutrient solutions in 5% CO2 - 95% O2 are returned toward normal by 100% O2. Our findings support an important role for exogenous CO2 in maintaining normal acid-base balance in frog mucosa by acting as an acidifying agent.

Elkhadem, A., S. Mickan, and D. Richards, "Adverse events of surgical extrusion in treatment for crown-root and cervical root fractures: a systematic review of case series/reports.", Dental traumatology : official publication of International Association for Dental Traumatology, vol. 30, issue 1, pp. 1-14, 2014 Feb. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Crown-root and cervical root fractures constitute a restorative challenge due to sub-gingival position of the fracture margin. Surgical tooth extrusion is one of the treatment options. There is uncertainty regarding the prognosis of such treatment modality.

OBJECTIVE: To assess adverse events of surgical tooth extrusion in the treatment for crown-root and cervical root fractures in permanent teeth.

METHODS: PubMed, Embase, and Google Scholar were searched through 15th of June 2012. Search was limited to English and Arabic languages. Reference list of relevant studies were hand-searched. Grey literature was searched using Open Grey. Two review authors independently extracted data, while only one assessed trial quality using 8-point methodological index for non-randomized studies (MINORS) scale. A sensitivity analysis was performed to exclude studies with suspected patients' duplicates.

RESULTS: Eleven case reports and eight case series involving 226 patients with 243 teeth were identified. No randomized controlled trials were found. The mean quality score for all case series was 9 suggesting a fair quality, while that of all case reports was 5 suggesting poor quality. Non-progressive root resorption is the most common finding following surgical extrusion with an event rate of 30% (95% CI 24.6-36.7%). This is followed by low event rates of tooth loss (5%), slight mobility (4.6%), marginal bone loss (3.7%), and progressive root resorption (3.3%). No ankylosis occurred to any extruded tooth, while severe tooth mobility showed negligible overall event rate of 0.4%.

CONCLUSION: The available evidence suggests that surgical tooth extrusion is a valid technique in management of crown-root and cervical root fracture of permanent teeth. Minimal adverse events and good prognosis are expected. Further, surgical extrusion can be considered as a treatment option in teeth suffering sub-gingival decay.

Hendrickson, W. A., and K. B. Ward, "Atomic models for the polypeptide backbones of myohemerythrin and hemerythrin.", Biochemical and biophysical research communications, vol. 66, issue 4, pp. 1349-56, 1975 Oct 27. Abstract
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