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Elkhadem, A., and I. Sami, "No clear evidence of superiority regarding pulp medicaments in primary molars.", Evidence-based dentistry, vol. 15, issue 4, pp. 100-1, 2014 Dec. Abstract

DATA SOURCES: Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Medline, Embase, the Web of Science, OpenGrey, the US National Institutes of Health Trials Register and the World Health Organization (WHO) Clinical Trials Registry Platform.

STUDY SELECTION: Two reviewers independently selected studies. Randomised controlled trials comparing different pulp interventions combining a pulp treatment technique and a medicament in primary teeth were considered.

DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Data abstraction and risk of bias assessment were carried out independently by two reviewers. The primary outcomes were clinical failure and radiological failure, as defined in trials, at six, 12 and 24 months. Pairwise meta-analysis using fixed-effect models was conducted with statistical heterogeneity being assessed using I2 coefficients.

RESULTS: Forty-seven trials involving 3910 teeth were included. All were small single centre studies. The overall level of evidence was low with only one trial having a low risk of bias, 20 a high risk and 26 unclear risk of bias.The 47 trials examined 53 different comparisons: 25 for pulpotomy, 13 for pulpectomy, 13 for direct pulp capping and two comparisons between pulpotomy and pulpectomy.Regarding pulpotomy, 14 trials compared mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) with formocresol (FC). MTA reduced both clinical and radiological failures at six, 12 and 24 months, although the difference was not statistically significant. MTA also showed favourable results for all secondary outcomes measured, although again, differences between MTA and FC were not statistically significant (with the exception of pathological root resorption at 24 months and dentine bridge formation at six months). MTA showed favourable results compared with calcium hydroxide (CH) (two trials) for all outcomes measured, but the differences were not statistically significant (with the exception of radiological failure at 12 months). When comparing MTA with ferric sulphate (FS) (three trials), MTA had statistically significantly fewer clinical, radiological and overall failures at 24 months. This difference was not shown at six or 12 months.FC was compared with CH in seven trials and with FS in seven trials. There was a statistically significant difference in favour of FC for clinical failure at six and 12 months, and radiological failure at six, 12 and 24 months. FC also showed favourable results for all secondary outcomes measured, although differences between FC and CH were not consistently statistically significant across time points. The comparisons between FC and FS showed no statistically significantly difference between the two medicaments for any outcome at any time point.For all other comparisons of medicaments used during pulpotomies, pulpectomies or direct pulp capping, the small numbers of studies and the inconsistency in results limits any interpretation.

CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence to identify one superior pulpotomy medicament and technique clearly. Two medicaments may be preferable: MTA or FS. The cost of MTA may preclude its clinical use and therefore FS could be used in such situations. Regarding other comparisons for pulpectomies or direct pulp capping, the small numbers of studies undertaking the same comparison limits any interpretation.

Elkhadem, A., and P. Nagi, "No evidence for effectiveness of interventions used to treat displaced permanent anterior teeth.", Evidence-based dentistry, vol. 14, issue 3, pp. 83, 2013 Sep. Abstract

DATA SOURCES: The Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled trials (CENTRAL), Medline, Embase, LILACS and Dissertation, Theses and Abstracts databases.

STUDY SELECTION: Randomised controlled trials or quasi-randomised controlled trials that included a minimum follow-up period of 12 months.Data extraction and synthesisTwo review authors independently and in duplicate assessed the eligibility of all reports identified in the searches. Authors were contacted for additional information where required.

RESULTS: No randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials were found.

CONCLUSIONS: We found no randomised or quasi-randomised trials of interventions to treat displaced luxated permanent front teeth. Current clinical guidelines are based on available information from case series studies and expert opinions. Randomised controlled trials in this area of dental trauma are required to robustly identify the benefits of different treatment strategies.

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Coscia, L., P. Causa, E. Giuliani, and A. Nunziata, "Pharmacological properties of new neuroleptic compounds.", Arzneimittel-Forschung, vol. 25, issue 9, pp. 1436-42, 1975 Sep. Abstract

RMI 61 140, RMI 61 144 and RMI 61 280 are newly synthetized N-[8-R-dibenzo(b,f)oxepin-10-yl]-N'-methyl-piperazine-maleates which show interesting psychopharmacologic effects. This work contains the results of a study performed with these three compounds, in order to demonstrate their neuropsycholeptic activity in comparison with chloropromazine (CPZ) and chlordiazepoxide (CPD). The inhibition of motility observed in mice shows that the compounds reduce the normal spontaneous motility as well as the muscle tone. The central-depressant activity is evidenced by increased barbiturate-induced sleep and a remarkable eyelid ptosis can also be observed. Our compounds do not show any activity on electroshock just as do CPZ and CPD. As to the antipsychotic outline, our compounds show strong reduction of lethality due to amphetamine in grouped mice and a strong antiapomorphine activity. They show also an antiaggressive effect and an inhibitory activity on avoidance behaviour much stronger than CPZ. We have also found extrapyramidal effects, as catalepsy, common to many tranquillizers of the kind of the standards used by us. As for vegetative phenomena, the compounds show hypotensive dose related action ranging from moderate to strong, probably due to an a-receptor inhibition. Adrenolytic activity against lethal doses of adrenaline, antiserotonin and antihistaminic effects, as well as other actions (hypothermia, analgesia, etc.) confirm that RMI 61 140, RMI 61 144 and RMI 61 280 are endowed with pharmacologic properties similar and more potent than those of CPZ. Studies on the metabolism of brain catecholamines show that they are similar to CPZ, although with less effect on dopamine level.

Crow, T. J., J. F. Deakin, and A. Longden, "Proceedings: Do anti-psychotic drugs act by dopamine receptor blockade in the nucleus accumbens.", British journal of pharmacology, vol. 55, issue 2, pp. 295P-296P, 1975 Oct. Abstract
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Baccanari, D., A. Phillips, S. Smith, D. Sinski, and J. Burchall, "Purification and properties of Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase.", Biochemistry, vol. 14, issue 24, pp. 5267-73, 1975 Dec 2. Abstract

Dihydrofolate reductase has been purified 40-fold to apparent homogeneity from a trimethoprim-resistant strain of Escherichia coli (RT 500) using a procedure that includes methotrexate affinity column chromatography. Determinations of the molecular weight of the enzyme based on its amino acid composition, sedimentation velocity, and sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis gave values of 17680, 17470 and 18300, respectively. An aggregated form of the enzyme with a low specific activity can be separated from the monomer by gel filtration; treatment of the aggregate with mercaptoethanol or dithiothreitol results in an increase in enzymic activity and a regeneration of the monomer. Also, multiple molecular forms of the monomer have been detected by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The unresolved enzyme exhibits two pH optima (pH 4.5 and pH 7.0) with dihydrofolate as a substrate. Highest activities are observed in buffers containing large organic cations. In 100 mM imidazolium chloride (pH 7), the specific activity is 47 mumol of dihydrofolate reduced per min per mg at 30 degrees. Folic acid also serves as a substrate with a single pH optimum of pH 4.5. At this pH the Km for folate is 16 muM, and the Vmax is 1/1000 of the rate observed with dihydrofolate as the substrate. Monovalent cations (Na+, K+, Rb+, and Cs+) inhibit dihydrofolate reductase; at a given ionic strength the degree of inhibition is a function of the ionic radius of the cation. Divalent cations are more potent inhibitors; the I50 of BaCl2 is 250 muM, as compared to 125 mM for KCl. Anions neither inhibit nor activate the enzyme.

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Marniemi, J., and M. G. Parkki, "Radiochemical assay of glutathione S-epoxide transferase and its enhancement by phenobarbital in rat liver in vivo.", Biochemical pharmacology, vol. 24, issue 17, pp. 1569-72, 1975 Sep 1. Abstract
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Bland, R. D., T. L. Clarke, and L. B. Harden, "Rapid infusion of sodium bicarbonate and albumin into high-risk premature infants soon after birth: a controlled, prospective trial.", American journal of obstetrics and gynecology, vol. 124, issue 3, pp. 263-7, 1976 Feb 1. Abstract

We conducted a controlled, prospective trial to evaluate the effectiveness of rapidly infusing sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and salt-poor albumin into high-risk, premature infants in the first 2 hours of life. Fifty-three infants, randomized into one of four treatment groups, received 8 ml. per kilogram of a solution containing either (A) glucose in water, (B) salt-poor albumin, (C) NaHCO3, or (D) a combination of albumin and NaHCO3. After the initial infusion, the babies received no colloid or alkali solutions until 4 hours of age. We managed them supportively with warmth, appropriate oxygen administration, isotonic fluid infusion, and close monitoring. Among the infants who received alkali, 14 of 26 acquired the respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), 11 died, and four had intracranial hemorrhage. Among babies who received no alkali, RDS occurred in 11 of 27, 5 died, and none had intracranial hemorrhage. These results do not support the common practice of rapidly infusing NaHCO3 into high-risk, premature infants, and they suggest that the early management of such infants needs renewed critical evaluation.

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Elkhadem, A., and S. Wanees, "Socioeconomic indicators and traumatic dental injury.", Evidence-based dentistry, vol. 16, issue 4, pp. 120-1, 2015 Dec. Abstract

Data sourcesPubMed, ISI, LILACS, Cochrane Library and Embase databases were searched.Study selectionEpidemiological studies (cross-sectional, case-control, cohort clinical trials) addressing possible associations between socioeconomic indicators (eg mother's schooling, household income, number of children, type of school) and traumatic dental injury in the primary dentition were considered.Data extraction and synthesisTwo reviewers independently selected studies. with study quality being assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). Data were extracted for categorical variables considered risk factors for TDI and recorded based on the distribution and frequency of TDI among children exposed to risk factors vs the frequency among children not exposed to risk factors. Meta-analysis was undertaken.ResultsSixteen studies (15 cross-sectional studies and one cohort study) were included. A wide range of socioeconomic indicators were investigated including; parents' schooling, parents' employment status, home ownership, having changed address in the previous year, income, family structure, number of residents in the home, number of children in the family, type of school and socioeconomic status. Children from families with household income less than two times average salary (US$ 592) (OR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.66-0.90) or more than three times the average salary (US$ 888) (OR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.65-0.89) had a significantly lower chance of having TDI in the primary dentition. TDI was not associated with socioeconomic status (high vs low - OR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.43-1.36; high vs medium - OR: 1.03; 95% CI: 0.72-1.48; medium vs low - OR: 0.70; 95% CI: 0.42-1.19), house ownership (owned vs rented - OR: 1.28; 95% CI: 0.98-1.66), mother's schooling (OR: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.74-1.08), or father's schooling (OR: 1.01; 95% CI: 0.62-2.74).ConclusionsThe scientific evidence demonstrates that socioeconomic indicators are not associated with TDI in the primary dentition. The evidence of an association between a low income and TDI is weak. In general, studies had low risk of bias. Further prospective cohort studies are needed to confirm this association.

Chow, Y. W., R. Pietranico, and A. Mukerji, "Studies of oxygen binding energy to hemoglobin molecule.", Biochemical and biophysical research communications, vol. 66, issue 4, pp. 1424-31, 1975 Oct 27. Abstract
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Elkhadem, A., and N. Orabi, "Weak evidence suggests higher risk for bracket bonding failure with self-etch primer compared to conventional acid etch over 12 months.", Evidence-based dentistry, vol. 14, issue 2, pp. 52-3, 2013. Abstract

DATA SOURCES: Medline, Embase, Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL). Unpublished data were sought by searching ClinicalTrials.gov, the National Research Register and Pro-Quest Dissertation Abstracts and Thesis database. There were no language restrictions.

STUDY SELECTION: Randomised and controlled clinical trials (including split mouth) directly comparing self-etch and acid-etch primers including patients with full-arch, fixed and bonded orthodontic appliances (not banded) with follow-up periods of at least 12 months were included.

DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Two authors abstracted data independently, with disagreements being resolved by a third. The Cochrane Risk of Bias tool was used to assess study quality. A random effects meta-analysis was undertaken.

RESULTS: Eleven studies were included in the qualitative summary with five studies contributing to a meta-analysis. These five studies (n =3444 brackets, 1721 acid-etch, 1723 self-etch) had relatively low statistical and clinical heterogeneity. Meta-analysis demonstrated a tendency for a higher risk of failure (odds ratio 1.35; 95% CI, 0.99-1.83; P 5 0.06) with self-etch primers. The use of self-etch techniques was also associated with a small but statistically significant time saving (weighted mean difference 23.2 seconds per bracket; 95% CI, 20.7-25.8; P \0.001). There was insufficient evidence to assess the effect of bonding modality on demineralisation rates.

CONCLUSIONS: There is weak evidence indicating higher odds of failure with self-etch primer than acid-etch over 12 months in orthodontic patients, and there is strong evidence that a self-etch primer is likely to result in modest time savings (eight minutes for full bonding) compared with acid-etch.

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Strejcek, J., "[Bronchial asthma].", Zdravotnické aktuality,, vol. 204, pp. 82-5, 1983. Abstract
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Dzudza, D., "[Chronic adhesive spinal arachnoiditis].", Medicinski arhiv, vol. 38, issue 6, pp. 291-6, 1984. Abstract
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, "[Guidelines in the battle against leprosy].", Acta leprologica, vol. 1, issue 1, pp. 3-21, 1983 Jan-Mar. Abstract
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Sinelnikova, E. M., T. V. Dvoretskova, and Z. S. Kagan, "[Intermediate plateaux in kinetics of the reaction catalyzed by biodegradative L-threonine dehydratase from Escherichia coli].", Biokhimii︠a︡ (Moscow, Russia), vol. 40, issue 3, pp. 645-51, 1975 May-Jun. Abstract

It has been shown that for the reaction catalyzed by "biodegradative" L-threonine dehydratase from E. coli strains K-12 and 980 in 0.5 M phosphate-carbonate buffer, pH 8.4 and pH 9.5, the plots of initial reaction rate (v) versus the initial substrate concentration ([S]0 are characterized by several inflection points, i. e. an intermediate plateau. The plot of v versus the allosteric activator (AMP) concentration have very complicated shapes: there are several inflection points, and also the maximum at L-threonine concentration equal to 3-10(2) and 5-10(-2) M. High AMP concentrations inhibit the enzyme at high substrate concentrations. The reduced glutathion dose not influence the enzyme and does not alter the activating effect of AMP. On the basis of the data obtained it is proposed that the substrate and AMP shift the equilibrium between multiple oligomeric enzyme forms differing in catalytic activity and kinetic manifestations of allosteric interactions between the active and allosteric AMP-binding sites towards polymerization. Thus, the functioning the enzyme under study is discussed in the frames of the model of dissociating regulatory enzymes with multiple intermediate oligomeric forms.

Nebudová, J., "[Migraine and vascular headache].", Zdravotnické aktuality,, vol. 204, pp. 186-90, 1983. Abstract
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Nazarova, E. V., and S. P. Nadkernichnyĭ, "[Phytotoxic and antibiotic properties of Gliocladium zaleskii pidopl. 11313 and Chaetomium aureum chivers 8583].", Mikrobiologicheskiĭ zhurnal, vol. 46, issue 4, pp. 33-6, 1984 Jul-Aug. Abstract
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Konjhodzić, F., "[Spinal echinococcosis].", Medicinski arhiv, vol. 38, issue 3, pp. 101-3, 1984. Abstract
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