The effect of bleomycin on the lung of albino rat and the possible protective role of dexamethasone and n- acetyl cysteine: morphological, histological, histomorphometrical and ultrastructural study.

Citation:
SH ES, WH N, AB EF, El-Shaarawy EAA. "The effect of bleomycin on the lung of albino rat and the possible protective role of dexamethasone and n- acetyl cysteine: morphological, histological, histomorphometrical and ultrastructural study." Egyptian Journal of Anatomy. 2011;32:1019-1068. copy at www.tinyurl.com/zsuen6c

Abstract:

Background: Bleomycin is an effective antineoplastic drug; however it is associated with pulmonary pathology which may progress to fibrosis.
Aim of the work: The present work was planned to study the injurious effects of bleomycin administration on the lung and the possible protective role of dexamethasone and N-acetyl cysteine.
Materials and methods: Forty albino rats were divided, into Group I: control and Group II: bleomycin-treated group which was subdivided into three subgroups: (A) which received bleomycin only, (B) which received dexamethasone and bleomycin and(C) which received N-acetyl cysteine in combination with bleomycin. Rats were sacrificed three weeks after administration of bleomycin. Lungs were carefully excised, weighed and grossly examined for any changes. Histological study was done for histological changes. Ultrathin sections were done and studied.
Results: The present study revealed a significant increase in the lung weight of rats that received bleomycin as compared to the control. The lung that received bleomycin manifested loss of normal alveolar pattern, associated diffuse mononuclear cellular infiltration, consolidation and collapse. Some specimens manifested emphysematous changes. The nuclei of pneumocytes displayed degeneration and pyknosis, the cytoplasm was rarefied with some degenerated organelles and shortening of the microvilli. Abundant fibroblasts and excessive collagen deposition. Thickened arterioles associated with exravasated blood.
Conclusion: Co-administration of dexamethasone or N-acetyl cysteine with bleomycin, resulted in regenerative changes of the alveolar damage. This protective effect was variable among the animals within the same group, where, in most specimens the lungs regained normal pulmonary architecture. No significant difference was observed between the protective role of dexamethasone and N-acetyl cysteine.

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