Toll-like receptor (TLR)21 signalling-mediated antiviral response against avian influenza virus infection correlates with macrophage recruitment and nitric oxide production.

Citation:
Abdul-Cader, M. S., H. Ahmed-Hassan, A. Amarasinghe, E. Nagy, S. Sharif, and M. F. Abdul-Careem, "Toll-like receptor (TLR)21 signalling-mediated antiviral response against avian influenza virus infection correlates with macrophage recruitment and nitric oxide production.", The Journal of general virology, vol. 98, issue 6, pp. 1209-1223, 2017 Jun.

Abstract:

Cytosine-guanosinedeoxynucleotide (CpG) DNA can be used for the stimulation of the toll-like receptor (TLR)21 signalling pathway in avian species which ultimately leads to up-regulation of gene transcription for pro-inflammatory molecules including nitric oxide and recruitment of innate immune cells. The objective of this study was to determine the antiviral effect of NO, produced in response to in ovo delivery of CpG DNA, against avian influenza virus (AIV) infection. We found that when CpG DNA is delivered at embryo day (ED)18 in ovo and subsequently challenged with H4N6 AIV at ED19 pre-hatch and day 1 post-hatching, CpG DNA reduces H4N6 AIV replication associated with enhanced NO production and macrophage recruitment in lungs. In vitro, we showed that NO originating from macrophages is capable of eliciting an antiviral response against H4N6 AIV infection. This study provides insights into the mechanisms of CpG DNA-mediated antiviral response, particularly against AIV infection in avian species.

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