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El-Barmelgy, H. M., and M. S. HAMED, "Tsunami risk assessment a mitigation planning tool", International Journal of Development and Sustainability, vol. Vol. 6, No. 9, issue ISSN: 2186-8662, pp. 1048-1065, 2017. Abstractijds-v6n9-08.pdfWebsite

The risk assessment model has been considered lately as one of the most efficient approaches having the ability of quantifying probabilities or a chain of probabilities concerning natural hazards. Risk planning schemes and tsunami mitigation measures were introduced by the most technologically advanced countries that have been effected by earlier tsunamis. These nations have the required technologies and resources for applying advanced techniques for achieving the required tsunami mitigation plans. The authors, in a previous paper, invented a sustainable tsunami mitigation tool utilizing the risk assessment model; the tool was named 'Strategic Tsunami Risk Assessment and Planning Model' (STRAPM). The novelty of the tool was mainly based on the ability of having an efficient tsunami risk assessment mitigation planning tool that could be applied proficiently within the context and limitation of developing nations. The tool was designed to provide coastal communities, of developing countries, with an applicable proactive tool that would allow these communities to define tsunami risk zones and buildings; thus having the ability to initiate the appropriate mitigation planning and evacuation plans. Applying the STRAPM has proved the tool’s efficiency; however, a major deficiency has been noticed. Thus the authors aim, through this paper, to present a required refinement and to practically reexamine the efficiency of the STRAPM.

Barmelgy, H. M., and A. A. Ibrahim, "Eco-Efficient Resort Planning and Design", Journal of Urban Research, vol. 13, issue ISSN: 2090-0694, pp. 19-36, 2014. AbstractEco-Efficiency Meter_Barmelgy_H. M_2014.pdf

Egypt is a country that is endowed with one of the world’s richest and most spectacular environment suitable for different types of tourism. Despite the diversity and richness of those natural heritage resources, the industrial and economic situation of the country is in turmoil. Such a situation leads the country to intensively rely on developing, and extensively using, its resources to satisfy its economic demands and requirements without much care to the environment. Since the eve of the seventies until now, unsustainable forms of tourism development have been initiated upon the natural and historical dimensions of the country’s heritage. Consequently, the country’s resources have been inefficiently consumed to a degree that the country has lost a number of its sensitive sites and resources. The paper deals with one of the natural heritage resources of the country, the coastal areas. Egypt endows more than 2450 km of highly scenic outstanding beaches overlooking the Mediterranean and the Red sea, and has adopted a highly intensive resort tourism industry, both on the national and international tourism markets. The types of resort development that took place have exerted deep negative impacts on the ecological integrity and stability of such highly sensitive coastal areas. The paper provokes the importance to adapt and promote the concept of eco-efficient design for promoting a sustainable form of resort development. Based on theoretical and practical analysis an eco-meter for eco-efficient resort planning and design is innovated. The eco-meter is tested and applied on the case study of Marina al-Alamien Resort, to be used as a guideline for promoting sustainability among existing and future resort designs.

Barmelgy, H. M., and M. H. Refaat, "Historical and Cultural Landscapes a Sustainable Design Manual for Historic Areas", International Journal of Development and Sustainability, vol. 3, issue 1 - ISSN: 2186-8662, pp. 108-134, 2014. Abstracthistorical_landscape_manual_barmelgy_h._m_2014.pdfWebsite

Egypt is a country with a vast history. It is considered one of the world’s biggest countries in hosting a large number of various historical sites within its urban context. Cairo, in particular, hosts several historic sites within its urban fabric. These sites, by reason of their special historic, scientific, or aesthetical qualities are of highly scenic value just like World Heritage Sites. It is not surprising; therefore, that many sites are favourite tourist attractions, generating revenue and drawing world attention to their importance. The status of these sites today is considered a serious threat towards their existence. This research provokes the ability of using elements of historical via cultural landscapes as a tool for preserving and restoring the value and image of these sites for the present and future generations. It investigates the practical ability of promoting historical and cultural landscapes in historical sites. The paper, based on theoretical, practical, and comparative analysis, provides a manual for historical landscape rehabilitation projects.

Barmelgy, H. M., "Strategic Tsunami Hazard Analysis and Risk Assessment Planning Model", International Journal of Development and Sustainability, vol. 3, issue 4 - ISSN: 2186-8662, pp. 784-809, 2014. Abstractstrategic_tsunami_hazard__risk_model_barmelgy_h._m_2014.pdfWebsite

Alexandria, a city with a devastating history of catastrophic tsunamis, is extremely vulnerable to a new cataclysmic tsunamic event at any moment, especially with the current high density coastal communities and the rapidly increasing population rates. Most of the city’s inhabitants are living in low lying land, even below sea level. The hazard of being attacked by a tsunami has been classified by many scientists as ‘likely’ and the city has been identified as one of the ‘Mediterranean tsunami vulnerable cites,’ were there is a great need to implement mitigation and preparedness measures and an advanced tsunami warning system. Similar to Indonesia’s case, Egypt is confronted with many challenges, economic crises and fragile political and security situation, which obscure its focus from this tsunami risk. This paper aims to develop a practical strategic tsunami hazard analysis and risk assessment planning model on the city of Alexandria. The model will form the basis for sustainable development planners to create and utilise the appropriate tsunami planning measures and emergency evacuation plans for coastal tsunami prone areas. It would also help in calculating and predicting the amount of casualties that would occur in the case of a tsunami attack without any mitigation or preparedness measures. The paper aims to prove the criticality of the situation and to grasp the attention of the authorities to one of the disasters that would result in the death of an over million people.

Barmelgy, H. M., and M. M. EL-Sayed, "Sustainability Indicators an International Tool as a Local Recipe", Journal of Urban Research, vol. 11, issue 2090-0694, pp. 1-21, 2014. Abstractindicators_a_tool_for_promoting_sct_in_historical_areas_barmelgy_h._m_2013.pdf

Most developing countries seek international tools to overcome their local problems. Such international tools, being imported and implemented without any attempts to localise them have led to their inability, in many circumstances, to address developing countries local problems. The paper presents a practical research for localising an international tool, aiming to utilise it as an efficient sustainability tool for promoting sustainable tourism in heritage market areas. The paper methodology utilises theoretical studies’ findings in composing an international list of sustainable tourism indicators. Aiming to prove the efficiency of the international tool, the paper conducted a correlated analysis, studying the ability and efficiency of the tool in addressing the local existing problems of tourism in heritage market areas. Although the tool did prove its high predictive ability to deal with existing local problems, still the ability to apply the international tool within the limitation of the local context is a valid threat hindering the efficiency of the tool. The main problem lies in the tool’s long list being composed of 45 indicators. Such comprehensive list would require adequate data resources and special expertise to interpret the data in order to achieve the required efficiency of the tool; which is not available in developing countries. The paper concluded a practical empirical field survey study, aiming to localise the list to match the requirements and limitations of the Egyptian condition. The study targeted a group of experts in the field of sustainability and historical tourism development. Based on the findings of the study the list was reduced to comprise only the 13 most effective indicators. Finally, the paper conducted a correlative analytical study between the final localised list and the existing tourism problems of the area. The findings of the study proved the list to have an expected efficiency rate of around 88% in guiding the implementation of sustainable tourism in heritage market areas.

Barmelgy, H. M., and M. M. Elsewady, "Sustainable Urban Design and the Forth Dimension", Journal of Urban Research, vol. 12, issue 2090-0694, pp. 29-45, 2014. Abstractsud_and_economic_dimension_barmelgy_h._m_2013.pdf

By the start of the 1950s, following the end of World War 2, the world was confronted with destroyed and demolished cities. Such conditions required aggressive development, which was carried out by professionals of the planning, and architecture disciplines, aiming to fulfill the urgent social requirements of building new cities. A surprise result was the inability of both disciplines to fulfill the social community requirement of promoting a healthy environment and providing citizens with better quality of life. The need for a new intermediate discipline was recognized. Since then the appearance of the urban design as a profession has been established, practiced and taught among the architecture and the planning schools around the world. In Egypt by the start of the 70s, a number of pioneers returning from Europe and the United States have introduced the new discipline to the Egyptian architecture and planning schools. Since then Egypt has managed to establish a special school in the field, with a specific shift towards the physical dimension, aesthetic and social needs. One of the great deficiencies of the urban design practice in the Egyptian school is the neglect for the other dimensions of the sustainable urban design, especially those concerning the economic and environmental dimensions. The paper aims to emphasis the importance of the economic dimensions and the need to efficiently include it as a core dimension in the urban design process. The paper’s methodology was based on a number of theoretical analytical studies defining the importance of the economic dimension and classifying the types of urban design projects, in the Egyptian context. Based on practical experience, the paper presented an innovated tool that would allow the full integration of the economic dimension in the urban design process. The tool was tested and reported on through practical application on an urban design project and a field survey carried out with a number of urban design experts and practitioners.

Barmelgy, H. M., "Healing Garden Accreditation Tool", International journal of Science Commerce and Humanities, vol. 1, issue 6, ISSN: 2052-6164, pp. 27-47, 2013. Abstracthealing_landscape_accrediation_tool_barmelgy_h._m_2013.pdf.pdfWebsite

Healing Gardens, a sustainable form of landscape, was identified lately as one of the most promising fields for promoting sustainable landscape. Healing garden research fills a vital highlighted research gap by investigating the connection between health and landscape. The contingency of having a mean to certify healing gardens is not far beyond application. The certification process would involve examination of both the horticultural therapeutic program and the garden design element’s healing qualities. The paper aims to provide a tool that can be applied on any form of landscape design or existing projects. In addition, landscape designers can use it as a guiding and monitoring tool during the design process, to achieve the maximum possible healing effects. The paper asserts such certification process as a practical proactive and reactive sustainability tool.

Barmelgy, H. M., "Healing Gardens’ Design", International Journal of Education and Research , vol. 1, issue 6, ISSN: 2201-6333 (Print) ISSN: 2201-6740 (On line) , pp. 229-248, 2013. Abstracthealing_gardens_deisgn_barmelgy_h._m_2013.pdfWebsite

The paper addresses a research gap dealing with landscape and health. Stress is always a burden on our shoulders whether at work, on the street, or even at the house. In a search to find a deep form of sustainable landscape that would act as a stress reliever, the notion of healing gardens came into light. The paper offers a practical case study for designing and formulating Healing Gardens (HG). It utilises the notion of design patterns in composing a framework that would empower the achievement of the therapeutic goals of the garden, thus providing the ability to label the garden as a healing garden. The framework is to be presented, applied, tested and reported upon by the author, who has experienced the challenge of creating Healing Gardens.

Barmelgy, H. M., and M. M. EL-Sayed, "Heritage Markets Tourism and Sustainable Development of Historical Areas", Engineering Research Journal , vol. 137, issue ISSN: 1110-5615, pp. AA62-AA84, 2013. Abstractst_and_sd_of_historical_areas_barmelgy_h._m_2013.pdf

Egypt is a developing country with very limited industrial resources and a very fragile economic sector. Such a situation has been the result of hundreds of years of miss-planning and miss-management of the country’s resources; due to the factors of internal corruption and external agendas that target the economic sector of the country, which aimed to compromise any future chances of this country in regaining its pride and civilization. Apart from the undeniable catastrophic economic situation of the country, the country still has a variety of historical assets that could redevelop its economic situation through sustainable development. However, these areas are not in a better condition than the rest of the country. Most of these areas have been suffering badly, either due to a long time of ignorance and lack of maintenance or due to the unsustainable urban development that affects the outer and inner context of these historical areas. Such reforms will require huge investments to build up the appropriate sustainable development of the historical areas and their communities. The paper asserts the possibility of utilizing the heritage markets of these areas by attracting and promoting sustainable tourism. Such ability would provide the required revenues for introducing sustainable development to the entire historical areas. The paper adopted a methodology that aimed, through a group of theoretical studies, to define the expected positive contribution that sustainable tourism would introduce to historical areas and sites. On the other hand, a defined set of negative existing conditions of heritage markets were defined based on a field survey. Finally, the paper conducted an analytical correlation study that aimed to prove the efficiency of sustainable tourism in overcoming problems of heritage markets; thus, introducing sustainability to historical areas.

Barmelgy, H. M., "Sustainable Landscape and Healing Gardens", International Journal of Development and Sustainability, vol. 2, issue 3 - ISSN: 2168-2065, pp. 2051-2065, 2013. Abstractsl_and_healing_gardens_barmelgy_h._m_2013.pdfWebsite

Sustainable landscape has been pointed at lately, in most of the sustainability literature, as an ecological way for promoting sustainable development. The paper, in its search for an appropriate landscape typology to promote sustainable landscape, targeted the healing gardens landscape. The concept of healing gardens is an ambiguous concept that has been mistakenly interpreted by many as a sort of infirmary garden attached to a hospital or a health institution. The paper aims to investigate and test the ability of ‘healing gardens’ to contribute to the aim of promoting sustainable landscape. A comparative analytical study is to be conducted between the principles of sustainable landscape and the principles of healing gardens; aiming to prove and define the efficiency of healing gardens as a deep form of sustainable landscape.

Barmelgy, H. M., "Visitor Management Plan and Sustainable Culture Tourism", International Journal of Education and Research, vol. 1, issue 12 - ISSN: 2201-6333, pp. 154-181, 2013. Abstractvmp_cairo_citadel_barmelgy_h._m_2013.pdfWebsite

Historical Sites all over the world have been threatened lately by a number of serious issues. Amongst the most significant issues encountered are the challenges and pressures of the tourist industry on the natural and historical fabric of these sites. The UNESCO has initiated the World Heritage Sites project for more than 50 years aiming to provide a method for applying continuous monitoring for preservation of these sites. After all, these sites bare the history of humanity all around the world. The social, cultural and environmental heritages of societies are priceless assets that can never be ignored or replaced. However, following the announcement of the WHS, these sites have started to gain popularity in the form of additional tourism attraction. In addition, they started to suffer great sources of threats as direct results of an unsustainably managed tourism. The paper provokes the ability of visitor management plan to release the pressure and safe guard these sites for the future generation while allowing the current generation the satisfaction of attaining their economic requirements presented in the tourism industry. Visitor management plan has been widely accepted lately as an efficient tool for promoting sustainable culture tourism products in historical sites.

Barmelgy, H. M., "Historical Areas Community Visioning 3D Model", Engineering Research Journal , vol. 115, issue 1110-5615, pp. A1-A17, 2008. Abstractcommunity_vissioning_3d_model_barmelgy_h._m_2008.pdf

Historical areas of the world are areas with unique urban fabric; including cultural patterns, traditions, and lifestyles associated with a place (Inskeep, 1991). The importance of such locations all around the world is very well recognised as the world cultural heritage that should be preserved for the future generations as well as for the current ones. However, these areas are already facing the threats of globalisation and the tourism industry especially in developing countries. Conservation as a process is of crucial importance for the survival, and the preservation of the world historical areas. However, after more than decades from promoting conservation the doubts regarding the efficiency of the process within the development limitation of the developing countries have been recognised. The need for an innovation through which integration can be applied aiming to affectively promote the conservation process.
The paper provoked the ability of sustainable culture tourism to introduce sustainable development to historical areas; having positive effects on social, culture and economic dimension thus providing the ignition for the sustainable development process of the area. However, to practically promote sustainability there is a need to utilise the appropriate, practical, and simple sustainability tool. The paper argued the ability of ‘Community Visioning’ to achieve the required sustainability objective, not only that but utilising the tool the paper innovated a model for applying the required ‘sustainable culture tourism development’ defined as the 3D community vision model (3DCV Model).
In a practical attempt to examine the applicability of the model the paper conducted a survey targeting the representatives of a historical destination community defined as hosts, guests, and the historical dimensions. Aiming, to define the degree of consistency and integration of vision that can be achieved among the defined 3 dimensions of the historical destinations.

Barmelgy, H. M., "‘Pros’ and ‘Cons’ of Rural Tourism and the Sustainable Development of Rural Communities", Engineering Research Journal , vol. 114, issue 1110-5615, pp. A13-A31, 2007. Abstractsustainable_rural_tourism_barmelgy_h._m_2007.pdf

The notion of linking sustainable tourism to the sustainable development of the Egyptian rural communities although well recognised is not without its doubts. Sustainable tourism could (Fsadni and Selwyn, 1997; Mills, 1993; and Hall, 2000) and should (Butler, 1993; and WTO, 1993) provide means of economic, social and environment regeneration for such communities. However, sustainable tourism is not a panacea and cannot be self-contained, its’ needs must be recognised within the wider context of the community sustainable development framework (Lane, 1994; and Human, 1994). After all it is the challenge of sustainable tourism to ‘build on the positive’ and ‘not to reproduce the negative’. The paper provokes the ability of sustainable tourism to act as the catalyst for promoting sustainable development in rural communities through the ability of introducing a deep ecological sustainable form of tourism defined as ‘sustainable eco-rural tourism’.
The paper aims to investigate and define a practical model for promoting a sustainable form of tourism within the Egyptian rural context defined as ‘sustainable eco-rural tourism’ through adopting the ‘Innovation-Diffusion’ theory (Moseley, 2000) in an attempt to address the questions of, what is meant by ‘sustainable eco-rural tourism’ as an innovative form of tourism, and how can it be locally adopted through a community-led approach to insure maximum host integration in the process ‘diffusion elements and channels’.

Barmelgy, H. M., and K. M. Samy, "Sustainable Tourism versus Sustainable Development: Attempting Sustainable Tourism Development for Egypt", Development and Tourism in Coastal Areas, INTA 2005, International Conference at Sharm El-Sheikh, Egypt. , 12 March 2005. Abstractst_versus_sd_barmlegy_h._m_2005.pdf

Tourism development is an opportunity but is also a threat if not managed appropriately. In the emerging tourism destinations, it is essential that tourism sustainable development initiatives be prepared to prevent the deterioration of their resources and guarantee their continued viability in the future. The achievement of tourism sustainable development will only be secured if there is openness for a "cultural change" in shifting the region’s patterns of development. Integrated planning, local communities, and monitoring are key players in this process of change. The WTO’s different definitions for sustainable tourism concentrate on the satisfaction of the tourists while protecting the tourism destination resources including environment, cultural biodiversity, and heritage. This approach presents us with a type of a tourist-centric development. While sustainable development presenting us with a community-centric approach where the benefits of the development are directed to the local communities of the development locations. Recently, debates have shifted toward more global thinking and local action where emphasising is set about tourism’s relationships with host communities within the frame of sustainable tourism development process. This paper, however, argues the ability of sustainable tourism development to bring to the fore the maximum satisfaction to the tourist (tourism-centric ST), while saving the ability to direct the development to the benefits of the local communities (community-centric SD).
Accordingly, the paper is organized in two parts, the first, conducts a profound definitions and analysis for the meaning and components of ST and SD process aiming to prove the ability of STD to maintain the balance between the concepts in the most economical, environmental and socio-cultural sustainable manner. Case studies of success efforts of coastal areas management and sustainability were demonstrated in the second part to identify how can STD contribute to link the development of the coastal areas to their hinterland thus providing a ST product within a comprehensive SD process of the development areas combining its coastal to its hinterland. The paper is concluded with a proposed framework that aims to positively contribute to the objective of implementing sustainable tourism development in coastal areas with reference to Egypt.

Barmelgy, H. M., and K. M. Samy, "To 'Eco-wise' or to 'Sustain-wise'", Development and Tourism in Coastal Areas, INTA 2005 International Conference at Sharm El-Sheikh, Egypt. , 10 March 2005. Abstractto_eco-wise_or_to_sustain-wise_barmelgy_h._m_2005_.pdf

In 1991 Elizabeth Boo initiated the notion of Eco-tourism into the global context, since then there is an on going debate around the efficiency of the term. Some argued the term to be no more than a myth or a rhetoric speech about sustaining our ‘ego’. Others sees the term as a panacea from heaven presenting the tourism industry with a sensitive environmental approach. The paper argues ‘eco-tourism’ to be a highly rated sustainable form of tourism that is only applicable to specific locations of high scenic environmental, social and culture values and with specific management capabilities . Consequently, the paper aims to investigate the rhetoric discourse of 'eco-tourism' and how can it contribute to the tourism developments within the Egyptian context. The research methodology is to conduct a profound study aiming to analyse and study the philosophy of the ecotourism concept, defining its features and principles. Studying the link between the concept of 'ecotourism' and that of 'sustainable tourism', extending the debate to the reality of ecotourism development process within the realm of developing countries; aiming to achieve an objective answer to the question of; whether to 'ecowise' or to 'sustainwise'?

Barmelgy, H. M., "The Inner Beauty and the Outer Beauty of the City", PRIMITIVE 2004, International Conference at the Welsh School of Architecture, Cardiff, Wales, 17 September2004. Abstractbeauty_and_sustainability__barmelgy_h._m_2004.pdf

The term inner beauty and outer beauty of the city was brought forward by one of the world famous Architects (Liu Thai Ker, Singapore) in the 39th forum of the International Society of City and Regional Planners (ISoCaRP) Cairo, Egypt 19-21 October, 2003. He argued that Architects and Urban Designers have been striving for the last decades to achieve the outer beauty of their cities. He asserts that the only way to succeed in achieving such beauty is through achieving the inner beauty of their cities first. The paper attempt to discuss to what extent this asserts is true through a comprehensive study of Fatimid Cairo as a traditional case study where primitivism has managed to achieve the inner and the outer beauty of the city. The discussion is to be extended to take ‘inner beauty’ beyond the abstraction of the term to investigate the ability of sustainable development to achieve the required inner beauty of our contemporary cities.

Barmelgy, H. M., "Primitive as a Sustainable Way of Life: Sustainability and the Egyptian Rural Communities", PRIMITIVE 2004, International Conference at the Welsh School of Architecture, Cardiff, Wales, 16 September2004. Abstractsustainabilty_and_egyptian_rural_communities_barmelgy_h._m_2004.pdf

Egypt has witnessed the launch of great development movements as a result of a number of reasons. Their impact generates a rapid restructuring of economic, cultural, social and even political orientations. Changes in values, norms tastes, political structures, production system, and consumption patterns of the Egyptian community are well recognised. On the scale of the urban communities to some extent, they were able to bare such transformation while maintaining their cultural heritage. However, the spatial transformation occurring to the rural areas (Egyptian villages) especially those in direct contact to the central urbanisation regions have results in generating tremendous impacts. Such impacts has leads some of these villages to slack their distinct primitive way of life including there primitive urban form and architecture character to the urbanisation transformation. Such primitive way of life can be asserted to be the most sustainable way for such communities to survive sustain-ably within the context of their surrounding environment. Baring in mind that the rural areas form more than 60% of the inhabited areas in Egypt gives us an indicator to the importance of being able to maintain bio-diversity of these areas and thus preserving its primitive way of life. Accordingly, the paper is first to define the principles and features of the Egyptian rural community primitive way of life then will attempt to record the social, economical and cultural transformation of the rural Egyptian community. The methodology adopted will depend on the literature analysis to define the traditional feature of the primitive way of life than on conducting a field survey to record the contemporary transformation on two case studies one of which is very close to the urbanisation area as the main sources of impacts and the other is far off. An analytical case study based on the results of those two cases is to clarify such impacts. Further more, an analytical correlation study is to be conducted aiming to link such transformation to those of the primitive urban from and architecture character of the rural Egyptian community. Finally the paper is to discus the ability of the sustainability principles to positively contribute in the way of maintaining the bio-diversity of the primitive way of life for such communities.

Barmelgy, H. M., "Sustainable Development and Sustainability Tools", Department of Architecture - International Conference Journal (ARCHCAIRO -2004), Cairo, Egypt, 12 February 2004. Abstractsustainability_tools_barmelgy_h._m_2004.pdf

During the last century most governments especially third world governments, were concerned with development. This concern overrides those about well being of their citizens and that of their environment which was suffering a great deal of impacts as a result of these developments. Accompanying the highlighted awareness of environmental problems was also recognition of the kind of relationship that exists between development and environment, which was best described as inexorably, linked (Holden, 2000). By the end of the 1980s there was a massive need for an environmentally new paradigm to emerge, one that utilises the global environmental movement of that time. In other words the world was ready to accept the concept of sustainability where sustainability was primarily an outcome of ecological concern mainly with how best to utilise and conserve natural resources at the same time (Krippendorf, 1993 and Hall, 2000). After more than 20 years since the emerging of the concept there are no doubt about the positive contribution it should have, if we can really implement and apply sustainable development, one that could satisfy the needs of the local communities while sustaining the environment for the current and future generations. In other words, professionals should stop the work of lips and start to work together trying really to implement sustainability (Bramwell and Lane, 1993).
Consequently, this paper is to focus on the ability of implementing sustainable development in developing countries. The papers argues the important role that the sustainability tools can have in sustaining the environment and thus putting us a step ahead in the way to achieve the required sustainable development. In doing so, a comprehensive study of the sustainability tools within an analytical comparative framework is to be presented aiming to define the most suitable tool or group of tools for achieving sustainable development within the context of developing countries. Also in an attempt to reach conclusions through the most possible objective approach the opinions of the professionals is to be taken in consideration through a selective multi stratified clustered cross-sectional sample to be interviewed.