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Eltatawy, S. S., E. A. Elmazzahy, A. M. ElShennawy, H. A. Madani, H. Abou Youssef, and I. F. Iskander, "The spectrum of bilirubin neurotoxicity in term and near-term babies with hyperbilirubinemia: Does outcome improve with time?", Early human development, vol. 140, pp. 104909, 2019. Abstract

BACKGROUND: While neonatal jaundice is generally a common benign condition; severe hyperbilirubinemia has a devastating potential for brain injury.

AIM: To detect the impact of severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia on motor and mental development and its progress over time in the first year of life using the Bayley scales of infant development (BSID) II.

STUDY DESIGN AND PATIENTS: 177 term/near-term infants admitted for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia to the NICU of Cairo University Children's Hospital were enrolled. Clinical examination, BIND score and laboratory tests were performed at admission. Neurodevelopmental assessment using BSIDΙΙ was performed at 3 months for 147/177 neonates, and at 6 months and 12 months for 139/177 neonates. Auditory brainstem evoked potential was recorded at 3 months of age and repeated if abnormal.

OUTCOME MEASURES: Psychomotor (PDI) and mental developmental indices (MDI) using BSIDII. Auditory impairment using Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR).

RESULTS: TSB levels ranged from 10 to 63 mg/dL (179.6-1077 μmol/L) with a mean of 25.52 ± 6.5 mg/dL (436 ± 112.9 μmol/L) and BIND scores ranged from 0 to 7. By one year of age, 19/139 patients were affected; 8 had classic kernicterus, 3 had isolated auditory impairment, 1 had severe motor and mild mental delay and 7 had mild motor delay. TSB level and BIND score had positive correlation with auditory impairment and lower scores for PDI (which improved with time) and MDI (which remained stationary). Duration of exposure to hyperbilirubinemia negatively affected neurodevelopmental scores.

CONCLUSION: The impact of severe hyperbilirubinemia is mainly on motor and auditory impairment. Mild mental delay was detected by BSIDII in few patients. Neurodevelopmental outcome improves over time.

Iskander, I., M. Khairy, and E. Elmazzahy, "The bilirubin albumin ratio and bilirubin encephalopathy", الطفل العربي, 2018.
Iskander, I., M. Khairy, and E. Elmazzahy, "Neurological outcome of neonates with severe hyperbilirubinemia", الطفل العربي, 2018.