Emergence of β-lactamase- and carbapenemase- producing Enterobacteriaceae at integrated fish farms.

Citation:
Hamza, D., S. Dorgham, E. Ismael, S. I. A. El-Moez, M. Elhariri, R. Elhelw, and E. Hamza, "Emergence of β-lactamase- and carbapenemase- producing Enterobacteriaceae at integrated fish farms.", Antimicrobial resistance and infection control, vol. 9, issue 1, pp. 67, 2020.

Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies suggested that determinants for antibiotic resistance have originated in aquaculture. Recently, the integrated agriculture-aquaculture system has been implemented, where fish are raised in ponds that receive agriculture drainage water. The present study aims to investigate the occurrence of β-lactamase and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in the integrated agriculture-aquaculture and the consequent public health implication.

METHODS: Samples were collected from fish, fishpond water inlets, tap water, outlet water, and workers at sites of integrated agriculture-aquacultures. Samples were also taken from inhabitants of the aquaculture surrounding areas. All samples were cultured on MacConkey agar, the Enterobacteriaceae isolates were tested for susceptibility to cephalosporins and carbapenems, and screened for bla, bla, bla, bla, bla, bla, bla, and bla. Strains having similar resistance phenotype and genotype were examined for the presence of Incompatible (Inc) plasmids.

RESULTS: A major proportion of the Enterobacteriaceae isolates were resistant to cephalosporins and carbapenems. Among the 66 isolates from fish, 34 were resistant to both cephalosporin and carbapenem groups, 26 to carbapenems alone, and 4 to cephalosporins alone. Of the 15 isolates from fishpond water inlets, 8 showed resistance to both groups, 1 to carbapenems alone, and 5 to cephalosporins alone. Out of the 33 isolates from tap water, 17 were resistant to both groups, and 16 to cephalosporins alone. Similarly, of the 16 outlet water isolates, 10 were resistant to both groups, and 6 to cephalosporins alone. Furthermore, of the 30 examined workers, 15 carried Enterobacteriaceae resistant strains, 10 to both groups, and 5 to cephalosporins alone. Similar strains were isolated from the inhabitants of the aquaculture surrounding areas. Irrespective of source of samples, strains resistant to all examined antibiotics, carried predominantly the carbapenemase gene bla either alone or with the β-lactamase genes (bla, bla, bla, and bla). The isolates from fish, water, and workers harboured a wide-range of multi-drug-resistance Inc. plasmids, which were similar among all isolates.

CONCLUSION: The present findings suggest transmission of the resistance genes among Enterobacteriaceae strains from different sources. This reiterates the need for control strategies that focus on humans, animals, water, and sewage systems to solve the antibiotic resistance problem.