The efficacy of nanocubosomal systems in ameliorating submandibular salivary gland alterations in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

Citation:
Farag, D. B. E., C. Yousry, A. M. Al-mahallawi, H. I. El-Askary, M. R. Meselhy, and N. AbuBakr, "The efficacy of nanocubosomal systems in ameliorating submandibular salivary gland alterations in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.", Drug delivery, vol. 29, issue 1, pp. 62-74, 2022.

Abstract:

Diabetes mellitus is a challenging health problem. Salivary gland dysfunction is one of its complications. Current treatments possess numerous adverse effects. Therefore, herbal extracts have emerged as a promising approach for safe and effective treatment. However, they are required in large doses to achieve the desired effect. Accordingly, extract (OE) was incorporated into nano-sized systems to enhance its biological effects at lower dosages. OE was standardized against rosmarinic acid (RA) and then loaded into nano-cubosomal (NC) systems via a 2 full-factorial design. Two optimum nano-systems at different drug loads (2.08 or 1.04 mg-RA/mL) were selected and assessed to compare their effects in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats against conventional OE (2.08 mg-RA/mL). Blood glucose was evaluated weekly. Submandibular salivary glands were processed for histopathological examination and nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (), Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (), and gene expression analysis. NC systems were successfully prepared and optimized where the optimum systems showed nano-sized vesicles (210.4-368.3 nm) and high zeta potential values. results showed a significant lower blood glucose in all treated groups, with an exceptional reduction with NC formulations. Marked histopathological improvement was observed in all OEtreated groups, with OE-NC4 (2.08 mg-RA/mL) demonstrating the best features. This was supported by RT-PCR; where the OE-NC4 group recorded the highest mean value of and the least mean values of and , followed by OE-NC3 and OE groups. In conclusion, OE-loaded NC enhanced the anti-hyperglycemic effect of OE and ameliorated diabetic gland alterations compared to conventional OE. Thus, cubosomal nano-systems could be anticipated as potential carriers for the best outcome with OE.