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Khalifa, A. E., D. K. Ibrahim, H. A. Al-Shatoury, I. G. Shaaban, A. M. EL-Gizawy, H. A. A. Eltalawy, T. F. Youssef, and M. R. G. M. A. Abdellah, "Quality Assurance Processes in Egyptian Higher Education Institutions at Both Institutional and National level: Their Development and Sustainability", The International Network for Quality Assurance Agencies in Higher Education (INQAAHE) Conference 2011, Madrid, Spain, 2011. Abstract

Internal and external measures assuring quality in Egyptian higher education institutions and the improvement in higher education as a result are discussed in this study. Effect of QA processes on internal mechanisms and the role of such QA processes in policy making at both the institutional and national levels are also investigated with reference to some case studies. Internal mechanisms are implemented through QA units in colleges/institutes, QA centers in universities, and projects for QA and qualifying for accreditation financed by the "Ministry of Higher Education". These projects are managed by a "Steering Committee for The Program of Continuous Improvement and Qualifying for Accreditation". The need for continuous improvement urged faculties to adopt certain policies to deal with points of weakness where some faculties intended to have a formal system to deal with student complaints, to handle resistance to change among faculty staff and administrative personnel, and to think of strategies for dealing with the bureaucracy. The needs of higher education systems in Egypt for external and internal QA measures are evident and therefore, several proposals for ensuring sustainability are suggested. "The National Authority for QA and Accreditation of Education" plays a pivotal role in external evaluation of QA activities in higher education institutions. Its basic principles are inspired from the good systems and practices aimed to assure quality of education. Cooperation of Egyptian higher education institutions with QA agencies are also discussed in this paper while referring to means of identification and dissemination of good practice for the purpose of continuous improvement.