A novel cascade-loop controller for load frequency control of isolated microgrid via dandelion optimizer

Citation:
Khalil, E., T. A. Boghdady, M. H. Alham, and D. K. Ibrahim, "A novel cascade-loop controller for load frequency control of isolated microgrid via dandelion optimizer", Ain Shams Engineering Journal, vol. 15, issue 3, pp. Article no. 102526, 2024.

Abstract:

In fast-growing isolated microgrids (IMGs), load frequency control (LFC) ensures optimal power quality for end
users. Stochastic grids, notably with renewable energy resources (RESs), require robust and intelligently designed LFC schemes. Thus, this research presents a novel cascade-loop controller combining a fractional order proportional derivative with a filter and a fractional order-proportional tilt integral derivative (FPDN-FPTID)
to improve LFC for single and multi-area IMGs. Recent dandelion optimization adjusts FPDN-FPTID controller
settings. Anti-windup keeps the controller out of the non-linear zone for low inertia IMGs. It concerns various
sources’ maximum generating rates. The two-area IMG model shows its potential and scalability. Extensive
MATLAB/Simulink simulations show that the FPDN-FPTID controller outperforms numerous published controllers, either single or cascade-loop, in minimum error criteria, undershoots/ overshoots/settling times, frequency, and tie-line power deviation following load and RES variations. Finally, the sensitivity study indicates
the suggested controller stabilizes the system despite ±25 % parameter changes.

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