New coordination approach to minimize the number of re-adjusted relays when adding DGs in interconnected power systems with a minimum value of fault current limiter

Citation:
Ibrahim, D. K., E. E. D. A. El Zahab, and S. A. E. A. Mostafa, "New coordination approach to minimize the number of re-adjusted relays when adding DGs in interconnected power systems with a minimum value of fault current limiter", International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, vol. 85: Elsevier, pp. 32-41, 2017.

Abstract:

The presence of DGs in power networks tends to negatively affect relays coordination. Adding fault current limiters FCLs is one of the possible solutions to mitigate negative impacts of DGs addition on protection systems. Traditional schemes have estimated the minimum value of FCL to restore relays coordination when adding DGs without resetting of any relays. That minimum value of FCL in such case is called a critical value, where below this value the relays coordination will be lost.
Nowadays, designing FCL to simultaneously achieve two conflicted objectives of good performance and low cost is considered a great challenge. The paper introduces a new scheme to determine to what extent we could decrease FCL impedance value below its critical value with re-adjusting the original settings of only one adaptive relay to get relays coordination. Decreasing FCL value below its critical value will reduce the cost especially for superconductivity FCL. The proposed scheme can determine the location of that selected relay to be an adaptive one and estimate its re-adjusted new settings to be applied when DGs are added while inserting the reduced value of FCL.
Actually the proposed scheme can be applied for any networks irrespective of the number of added DGs and their capacities; while having an adaptive relay is the only requirement to implement it. The proposed approach is implemented and effectively tested on the large well-known interconnected IEEE-39 bus test system with 84 relays. Its results are compared with other approaches where, no readjusted relays settings are applied. A noteworthy advantage of the proposed scheme is the ability to implement a reduced FCL value than the critical value, by adjusting only one relay settings in the whole network. The proposed scheme may also be extended to re-adjust settings of more than one relay and get further reduced value of FCL. Furthermore, it is also shown that a more optimum value of the total operating time of all primary relays for near end faults is achieved when applying the proposed method rather than other traditional schemes.

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