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Din, E. S. T. E., M. Gilany, M. M. Abdel Aziz, and D. K. Ibrahim, "A wavelet-based fault location technique for aged power cables", Power Engineering Society General Meeting, 2005. IEEE: IEEE, pp. 2485-2491, 2005. Abstract

A novel Wavelet-based Travelling Wave cable fault locator scheme is presented in this paper. Using the theory of wavelet singularity detection as a powerful signal processing tool, the initial arrival of the voltage travelling waves at both sides of the power cable and the second arrival of the travelling waves at the first side can be identified reliably without the need for detection the sign of these waves. The developed wavelet
processing is applied on the modal coordinated instead of the phase coordinates. The proposed scheme has the ability to eliminate the effect of the change in the propagation velocity of the travelling waves. This will help solving the problem of cable changing parameters especially the changing of the relative permittivity of the cable over its age. Cable changing parameters causes a large error in all fault location techniques, which use the value of velocity of propagation in calculations. Characteristics of the proposed protection algorithm are analyzed by extensive simulation studies using ATP/EMTP. The obtained results
indicate an accepted degree of accuracy for the suggested fault locator. In addition, the results prove that the proposed wavelet based scheme solves the problem of aging cables with changing parameters over the age of the power cable.

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fatma elzahraa magdy, D. K. Ibrahim, and W. Sabry, "Virtual power plants novel electro-economical modeling approach", Cigre Egypt 2019, The Future of Electricity Grids: Challenges and Opportunities, Egypt, 6-8 March 2019. Abstract

From about fifteen years passed, a new term was proposed for the first time by Dielmann and Velden: "Virtual Power Plant (VPP)", and they asked about if the VPPs can contribute as a reliable and environmentally oriented energy supply, or not?, at this moment, they considered some problems that must be examined to insure the success of this idea; like: management of such a system (optimal utilization), adaptation of VPP with the network connected to (reliability), markets (retail and wholesale) … etc. If these problems are solved, then the VPP has a large opportunity to deliver an important contribution as an economic, reliable and nonpolluting energy supply system. The market is the dominant factor for the success of VPPs being. Before the age of distributed generation (DG), the energy delivery pricing model was the cost against service. The model states that consume (buy) energy then pay -buy and pay-. When the age of renewables raised up, the model of buy and pay is shifted away to a new market based pricing model: pay at first and then buy. Another conceptual model starts to appear including active demand side participation using the transactive energy concept. In this paper, a new combined model for market and electrical performance of VPPs is presented; the electro-economical model (EEM). The model will include the four basic components of any VPP: dispatchable power plants, flexible loads, storage units, and stochastic generating units. Two main targets for the proposed modeling: optimal operation of VPPs, and active network energy management of VPPs. The VPP can earn profit from the market and as a result, its objective reduces to maximizing its profit (ρ). Energy management in a VPP or active network management means the optimal operation of this VPP in order to manage energy flow. Optimal operation is based on a stochastic basis of energy sources and multi-market framework.

fatma elzahraa magdy, D. K. Ibrahim, and W. Sabry, "Virtual Power Plants Modeling and Simulation using Innovative Electro-Economical Concept", 16th International Conference on Electrical Machines, Drives and Power Systems ELMA , Varna, Bulgaria, 6-8 June 2019. Abstract

Most of the previous researches which intended with the subject of virtual power plants (VPPs), focused on the study of VPPs from economical point of view: auctions, bidding, trading, markets, pricing, cost, profit, benefits, risk, investors … etc. Merely conjecture, all the VPPs' models presented are financial and economical models, with no one prescribed electrical model. In this paper, a generic VPP will be proposed and considered for the study. The proposed generic VPP will be modeled with a novel Electro-Economical Model (EEM). The proposed model was constructed on three steps: construction of electrical model, construction of economical model, and combining both electrical and economical models to form EEM of the proposed generic VPP. The proposed generic VPP consisting of four basic components: dispatchable power plant(s), flexible load(s), storage unit(s), and stochastic generating unit(s); was illustrated. This system model has been simulated. All simulation results will be demonstrated and discussed.

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Ibrahim, D. K., T. E. El Sayed, E. E. - D. A. El-Zahab, and S. M. Saleh, "Unsynchronized fault-location scheme for nonlinear hif in transmission lines", Power Delivery, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 25, issue 2: IEEE, pp. 631-637, 2010. AbstractWebsite

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Ibrahim, D. K., and S. M. Saleh, "Unsymmetrical High-impedance Earth Fault Central Relay for Transmission Networks", Electric Power Components and Systems, vol. 39, issue 14: Taylor & Francis Group, pp. 1469-1492, 2011. AbstractWebsite

This article presents a central relay based on wavelet transform for high- impedance earth fault detection, zone identification, location, and classification in part of the Egyptian 500-kV transmission network. The scheme recognizes the distortion of the voltage and current waveforms caused by the arcs usually associated with high-impedance earth faults for unsymmetrical faults, whether single line to ground fault or double line to ground fault. The proposed discrete wavelet transform based analysis yields three phase voltages in the high-frequency range and zero-sequence root mean square current in the low-frequency range that are fed to fault detection and location algorithms, respectively, while phase currents in the high frequency range are fed to the classification algorithm. The fault detection algorithm is based on the recursive method to sum the absolute values of the high-frequency signal generated over one voltage cycle, while the zone identification and fault location algorithms use unsynchronized zero-sequence root mean square currents.On the other hand, the fault classification algorithm is based on the currents in the high frequency range for one- side data of the faulted line at the local relay after the detection and location process. Characteristics of the proposed central relay are analyzed by extensive simulation studies that clearly reveal that the proposed relay can accurately determine the network faulted line and can calculate fault distance with an acceptable error that does not exceed 5%. All simulation studies are carried out using a high-impedance earth fault model of a distribution system that is modified for transmission systems. An available real high-impedance earth fault case study is used to check the performance of the fault classification algorithm to classify phase and earth faults.

Sabra, H., D. K. Ibrahim, and M. Gilany, "Unnecessary Simultaneous Trip in Distribution Networks", 17th International Middle East Power Systems Conference, MEPCON 2015; Mansoura University, Egypt, December, 15-17, 2015., 2015. Abstract

In medium voltage distribution network, the phenomena of having a simultaneous false trip on healthy feeder/feeders during a real fault on another feeder is common. It affects badly the continuity of service. In this paper, three different causes of this unnecessary simultaneous tripping in distribution networks are discussed. The earth fault element problems caused by these phenomena are also evaluated. A practical solution for this problem is proposed by using the custom logic scheme exists in the digital protection relay. The proposed method is applied to an actual system utilizing the existing protective digital relays. Actual records for faulty phase current and calculated zero sequence currents were captured and analyzed by means of digital fault recorders exist in the protection relay. The obtained results are encouraging and indicate the suitability and advantages of the proposed method.

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Mostafa, S. A. E. A., D. K. Ibrahim, and E. E. - D. A. El-Zahab, "Two Approaches for Directional Overcurrent Relays Coordination in Interconnected Power Systems with Distributed Generation", Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Electrical Engineering, ICEENG Conference, Military Technical College, Cairo, Egypt, 29-31 May, 2012., 2012. Abstract

Connection of distributed generation (DGs) powered by renewable energy resources in power systems has numerous benefits. However the presence of these (DGs) increase the fault current levels in different points, and disturb the protection coordination of the existing relays. Two approaches are proposed for coordination of directional overcurrent relays (DOCRs) in power systems with (DGs), depending on the types of system relays either adaptive or non adaptive. For adaptive protection system, the first proposed approach is based on linear programming technique which used to calculate the relay settings in case of DGs existing or not. For non-adaptive protection system, the second proposed approach is introduced, in which minimum impedance of fault current limiter is calculated to restore the coordination of relays without altering the original relay settings. The two proposed approaches are implemented and tested on IEEE-39 bus test system.

Gilany, M., E. S. T. El Din, and D. K. Ibrahim, "Travelling Wave-based Fault Location Scheme for Multi-End Aged Underground Cable System", International Journal of Power and Energy Systems, vol. 28, issue 2: IASTED ANAHEIM, pp. 160, 2008. AbstractWebsite

Abstract—This paper presents a novel wavelet-based fault-location scheme for aged cable systems when synchronized digital fault recorded data are available at the two terminals of each cable. The proposed scheme estimates the fault location in multiend-aged cable systems using the theory of wavelet singularity detection as a powerful signal processing tool. The arrival of the first and second voltage traveling waves at both ends of the power cables can be identified reliably. The developed wavelet processing scheme is applied on the modal coordinates instead of the phase coordinates. The proposed scheme has the ability to eliminate the impact of the change in the propagation velocity of the traveling waves on the fault-location calculations. This will help solve the problem of cable changing parameters, especially the change of the relative permittivity of the cable with age. The method is valid even with faults that are very close to busbars. Characteristics of the proposed fault-location scheme are analyzed by extensive simulation studies using Alternative Transients Program/Electromagnetic Transients Program. The results indicate an accepted degree of accuracy for the suggested fault locator.

Eldin, E. M. T., M. I. Gilany, M. M. A. Aziz, and D. K. Ibrahim, "A travelling wave based fault location scheme for aged power cables", 3rd IEE International Conference on Reliability of Transmission and Distribution Networks (RTDN 2005): IET Digital Library, pp. 93-98, 2005. Abstract
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Gilany, M., D. K. Ibrahim, and E. S. T. E. Din, "Traveling-wave-based fault-location scheme for multiend-aged underground cable system", Power Delivery, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 22, issue 1, pp. 82-89, 2007. Abstract

This paper presents a novel wavelet-based fault-location scheme for aged cable systems when synchronized digital fault recorded data are available at the two terminals of each cable. The proposed scheme estimates the fault location in multiend-aged cable systems using the theory of wavelet singularity detection as a powerful signal processing tool. The arrival of the first and second voltage traveling waves at both ends of the power cables can be identified reliably. The developed wavelet processing scheme is applied on the modal coordinates instead of the phase coordinates. The proposed scheme has the ability to eliminate the impact of the change in the propagation velocity of the traveling waves on the fault-location calculations. This will help solve the problem of cable changing parameters, especially the change of the relative permittivity of the cable with age. The method is valid even with faults that are very close to busbars. Characteristics of the proposed fault-location scheme are analyzed by extensive simulation studies using Alternative Transients Program/Electromagnetic Transients Program. The results indicate an accepted degree of accuracy for the suggested fault locator.

Gilany, M. I., E. M. T. Eldin, M. M. Abdel Aziz, and D. K. Ibrahim, "Traveling wave-based fault location scheme for aged underground cable combined with overhead line", International Journal of Emerging Electric Power Systems, vol. 2, pp. 1032, 2005. AbstractWebsite

This paper presents a novel wavelet-based travelling wave fault location algorithm for aged underground cables in transmission systems. Such transmission systems consist of overhead lines combined with underground power cables. Applying the singularity detection feature of wavelets as a powerful signal processing tool, the first and second initial arrival of the voltage travelling waves at the first end of the overhead as well as at the terminal end of the aged cable line can be identified reliably without the need for detection the sign of these waves. In this paper modal signals, rather than the phase signals, are
the inputs to the relay. The proposed algorithm is capable of eliminating the effect of the change in the propagation velocity of the travelling waves over the age of the cable. It can be used on-line
following the operation of digital relays or off-line using the data stored in the digital transient recording apparatus. Extensive simulation studies carried out using ATP/EMTP show that the proposed algorithm provides an accepted degree of accuracy in fault location under different fault conditions.

Abdel Aziz, M. M., A. F. Zobaa, D. K. Ibrahim, and M. M. Awad, "Transmission lines differential protection based on the energy conservation law", Electric Power Systems Research, vol. 78, issue 11: Elsevier, pp. 1865-1872, 2008. AbstractWebsite

This paper proposes a differential protection scheme for transmission lines using the energy conservation law. The real power signals at both ends (sending and receiving) of the line are compared with a prespecified value, if the resultant is more than this value, an internal fault is indicated in the transmission line zone. The proposed technique is evaluated using PSCAD/EMTDC program configurated to model the effect of faults on typical 500 kV transmission line. Extensive simulation studies show that this protection scheme has the ability to discriminate internal faults fast and accurately, and is more reliable than conventional biased differential protection scheme, and suitable for all types of lines. Details of the proposed relay design are given in the paper; also results of some performance studies are given.

Shafei, M. A. R., D. K. Ibrahim, and E. E. - D. A. El-Zahab, "Transient stability enhancement of Egyptian national grid including nuclear power plant in Dabaa area", Power and Energy (PECon), 2012 IEEE International Conference on, Kota Kinabalu Sabah, Malaysia, IEEE, pp. 487-492, 2012. Abstract

The main purpose of this paper is focused upon the enhancement of transient stability and improvement of the dynamic behavior of Egyptian electrical power grid including new nuclear power station in Dabaa area. This target is achieved via employing only one device as a first approach of solution. That device is the Static VAR Compensator (SVC). Capability of that device to provide synchronizing torque is tested at different implementation conditions, as well as, different locations of feedback signals. For that purpose, singular value decomposition is used and siting index program is created. A second approach of solution is also proposed, in which a Power System Stabilizer (PSS) is added as a more effective device in providing damping torque. For the two proposed approaches, devices' time constants and gains are set using genetic algorithm optimization technique (GA).

Shazly, J. H., M. A. Mostafa, D. K. Ibrahim, and E. A. E. E. Zahab, "Thermal Analysis of HV Cables with Several Types of Insulation for Different Configurations in The Presence of Harmonics", IET Generation, Transmission & Distribution, vol. 11, issue 14, pp. 3439 –3448, 2017. AbstractWebsite

In this contribution, the three-phase underground cable is modelled using COMSOL Multiphysics software to evaluate the steady state and transient thermal performances. Finite element technique is applied using the heat conduction equation to study the temperature distributions in power cables components and the surrounding environment for both linear and non-linear loads. A real case study of 220 kV, 340 MVA three phase single core copper cables insulated by XLPE is studied. Other types of insulation such as oil, and SF6 gas and their contributions of convection and radiation are investigated at trefoil and flat configurations. The loading capability under different ambient conditions for average moisture soil and dry soil with low moisture content are also evaluated taking into account the unfavourable effect of dry zones formation. Moreover, the challenge of predicting the accurate thermal performance and estimating the required derating factor in the presence of odd harmonics is considered. The effect of the change of the frequency spectrum of the non-linear load current by involving different simultaneous harmonic orders for the same total harmonic distortion is extensively investigated for both flat and trefoil configurations. It is concluded that all harmonics contributions should be considered, to accurately calculate the required cable derating.

Younis, R. A., D. K. Ibrahim, E. M.Aboul-Zahab, and A. ’fotouh El'Gharably, "Techno-economic investigation using several metaheuristic algorithms for optimal sizing of stand-alone microgrid incorporating hybrid renewable energy sources and hybrid energy storage system", International Journal on Energy Conversion (I.R.E.CON.), vol. 8, issue 4, pp. 141- 152, 2020. Abstract

Increasing energy demand worldwide has resulted in more penetration of renewable sources for developing non-polluted electric energy despite their prices are not economically competitive to traditional generation systems due to intermittent nature of renewable resources. Energy storage systems are used to counteract the intermittent nature of renewable sources. Therefore, the optimal sizing and design of stand-alone renewable generating systems is a significant concern to get a more cost-effective system. This paper focuses on achieving the optimum design and size of a microgrid to meet the load requirements and reducing the total cost including capital, investment, operational and maintenance costs. For this aim, the sizing problem is formulated to be solved using three well-known metaheuristic algorithms, namely, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Grey Wolf Optimization (GWO) and Cuckoo Search Optimization (CSO). The employed microgrid comprises hybrid renewable energy sources of PV/Wind systems integrated with a hybrid energy storage system of Battery and FC/Electrolyzer set for supplying AC loads located in Zafarana, Egypt. On the basis of real meteorological data of the studied location, the produced energies from the renewable sources are estimated using MATLAB developed algorithms. The simulation results showed that the optimized design using CSO can robustly and efficiently yield the optimal design of a microgrid.

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Nasr, A. M., D. K. Ibrahim, S. Fakhry, and M. M. Abdel Aziz, "A Study of Single Phase Static Energy Meter Behavior during Voltage Dips", 14th International Middle East Power Systems Conference (MEPCON’10), Cairo University, Egypt, 2010. Abstract
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Hamdy, M., M. Elshahed, D. Khalil, and E. E. - D. A. El-Zahab, "Stochastic Unit Commitment Incorporating Demand Side Management and Optimal Storage Capacity", Iranian Journal of Science and Technology, Transactions of Electrical Engineering, vol. 43, issue 1, pp. 559–571, 2019. AbstractWebsite

High penetration of wind energy imposes several operational challenges due to its uncertainty and intermittent nature. Flexible energy resources represent key solutions to compensate for power mismatch associated with wind power (WP) uncertainty and intermittency. This paper proposes a new stochastic unit commitment (SUC) problem formulation including high penetration of wind energy, energy storage system (ESS), and demand side management. Firstly, the Latin hypercube sampling is combined with Cholesky decomposition method to generate different WP scenarios. The simulated scenarios are then reduced using the fast forward selection algorithm. Finally, a novel SUC formulation implements these reduced scenarios to size the ESS optimally, considering its cost and benefit maximization of wind energy. To validate the proposed approach, a nine-unit test system is used to demonstrate the reduction in the operational cost and the increase in the utilized wind energy under different operational conditions.

Mahmoud, M. A. E. F., D. K. Ibrahim, and M. Gilany, "A Single-End Fault Location for Multi-Tapped Overhead Distribution Systems", International Middle-East Power Systems Conference (MEPCON), Helwan University, Egypt,, December 27-29, 2016. Abstract

This paper presents an automated fault location scheme for MV overhead distribution networks. The scheme utilizes only the measurements of voltage signals at the main substation. Clarke and Fast Fourier transformations are applied to get the frequency of the travelling wave generated during the
fault. A simple automation system is implemented to identify the faulted lateral. A typical 22 kV distribution system is used to test and validate the proposed scheme. ATP program is used to simulate the tested network while the required calculations are performed by MATLAB developed algorithms. Extensive fault cases are carried out at different fault positions, inception angles, fault resistance and load levels. The calculated errors indicate that the proposed scheme has low sensitivity to the change of the fault conditions that ensures the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed scheme.

Shafei, M. A. R., Y. A. Anwar, and D. K. Ibrahim, "Sharm El-Sheikh 5 MW PV Plant Performance, Environmental Impact and Grid Connection Parameters", 21st International Middle East Power Systems Conference, MEPCON , Tanta University, Egypt, December 17-19, 2019. Abstract

A few years ago, most of photovoltaics (PV) were installed in rather small stand-alone systems, the majority of today´s modules are implemented in grid-connected systems satisfying well-defined technical aspects. This growth is mostly due to the ambitious subsidy programs adopted by governments in the developing countries. Meanwhile, to be successfully integrated with the utility grid in low, medium, or high voltage networks, it is essential to meet the requirements of the country interconnection code. In this paper, the requirements of the Egyptian grid code for connecting a 5 MW PV plant with utility grid have been examined and evaluated. In addition, the environmental effects of installing the PV plant have been discussed and compared with fossil fuels.

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Dawoud, M. A., D. K. Ibrahim, M. I. gilany, and A. ’F. El’Gharably, "Robust Coordination Scheme for Microgrids Protection Based on the Rate of Change of Voltage", IEEE Access, vol. 9, pp. 156283-156296, 2021. Abstract

The wide application of microgrid concept leads to challenges for the traditional protection
of distribution networks because of the changes in short circuit level and network topology during the two
modes of microgrid operation. This paper proposes a promising solution for these problems by offering
a new protection coordination scheme not affected by the variation of short circuit level or the changes
in network topology. The proposed protection scheme is based on local measurements at relay location
with low sampling frequency by computing the rate of change of fundamental voltage (ROCOV) to detect
different fault types, identify the faulty zone accurately and guarantee robust coordination between primary
and backup relays. The proposed coordination scheme can be achieved by optimizing either two settings for
relay characteristic (time dial setting and pickup value) or four settings (time dial setting, pickup and the
parameters that control the characteristic shape (A & B)). The proposed scheme is extensively tested using
MATLAB simulations on the modied IEEE 14 bus meshed network embedded with synchronous/inverter-
based distributed generation units under wide variations in operating conditions and short circuit levels
for both grid-connected and islanded modes of operation. The achieved results conrm that the proposed
coordination scheme can maintain the coordination between primary and backup relays for different fault
locations, types and different topologies. It provides selective, reliable, and secured microgrid operation
compared with conventional schemes, using fault current limiters and some other techniques discussed in
the literature.

Dawoud, M. A., D. K. Ibrahim, and M. Gilany, "Restoring recloser-fuse coordination in radial distribution networks with distributed generation", Power Systems Conference (MEPCON), 2017 Nineteenth International Middle East: IEEE, pp. 170-175, 2017. Abstract
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Elhabashy, M. M., H. M. Sharaf, and D. K. Ibrahim, "Reliable protection for static synchronous series compensated double-circuit transmission lines based on positive sequence active power calculations using PMUs", Electric Power Systems Research, vol. 223, issue October 2023, pp. Article no.109695, 2023. AbstractWebsite

Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC) allows dynamic control capabilities of transmitted power. Unfortunately, inserting SSSC in transmission lines (TLs) disturbs impedance-based distance relays as their directionality and reachability are affected by overreaching or underreaching. This paper proposes an approach for protecting double-circuit TLs compensated with SSSC. It relies on the centralized wide-area protection architecture to calculate a proposed driven index: the rate of change of positive sequence active power difference. Phasor measurement units (PMUs) at TL ends estimate voltage and current phasors to calculate the positive sequence active power at TL ends and send them to the system protection center that evaluates the index and gives the trip decision or not. Ensuring the sensitivity, dependability, and security of the approach is essential. So, the overall scheme integrates two other algorithms. One is based on the polarities of the incremental power at both ends to determine whether the fault is internal or external. The other evaluates the phase angle of the integrated impedance to deactivate the power swing-blocking function for fault detection. The scheme's effectiveness is validated comprehensively through extensive simulation tests for fault and system conditions. The results show that the proposed approach is fast, secure, selective, and reliable.

Shafei, M. A. R., M. S. Mohamed, A. A. Mansour, and D. K. Ibrahim, "Recharging Portable Devices by Photovoltaic Modules Using Inductive Power Transfer", International Journal on Energy Conversion (IRECON), vol. 9, issue 5, pp. 230-238, 2021. Abstract

Portable devices are part of people’s daily lives, since they provide the capabilities that make life easier. However, they consume much energy that requires continuous charging. Integrating renewable energy sources, especially photovoltaic (PV) modules into wireless charging, has been widely adopted in order to increase availability, flexibility, safety, and robustness. In this paper, a new variable frequency control technique for inductive power transfer (IPT) is proposed in order to overcome the switching frequency limitation and increase the transfer efficiency without increasing the switching frequency. At first, charging power (PV power) is stored in a battery. Then, it is transferred based on inductive coupling when needed. The hardware of the proposed wireless charging system has been carried out for two different configurations. The first one is the single switch using a variable frequency control algorithm, which has achieved 40% efficiency. The other one uses half-wave inverter applying no resonance for two types of core: Nano-crystalline and ferrite. For that configuration, the maximum achieved efficiency has been 80% at zero air gap and 36.91% at the 5 mm air gap by the Nano-crystalline core.

Ibrahim, D. K., E. S. T. E. Din, E. M. Aboul-Zahab, and S. M. Saleh, "Real time evaluation of DWT-based high impedance fault detection in EHV transmission", Electric Power Systems Research, vol. 80, issue 8: Elsevier, pp. 907-914, 2010. AbstractWebsite

It is possible to capture the required travelling wave information contained in fault transients using wavelet transform. This paper presents practical real time testing for the high impedance fault (HIF) detection algorithm based on real time accidents data. The proposed scheme is implemented for HIF detection in extra high voltage transmission lines. The classifier is based on an algorithm that uses recursive method to sum the absolute values of the high frequency signal generated over one cycle and shifting one sample. Characteristics of this scheme are analyzed by extensive real time studies that clearly reveal that this technique can accurately detect HIFs in the EHV transmission lines within only half a cycle from the instant of fault occurrence. The reliability of this scheme is not affected by different fault conditions such as fault distance and fault inception angle.

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Khalifa, A. E., D. K. Ibrahim, H. A. Al-Shatoury, I. G. Shaaban, A. M. EL-Gizawy, H. A. A. Eltalawy, T. F. Youssef, and M. R. G. M. A. Abdellah, "Quality Assurance Processes in Egyptian Higher Education Institutions at Both Institutional and National level: Their Development and Sustainability", The International Network for Quality Assurance Agencies in Higher Education (INQAAHE) Conference 2011, Madrid, Spain, 2011. Abstract

Internal and external measures assuring quality in Egyptian higher education institutions and the improvement in higher education as a result are discussed in this study. Effect of QA processes on internal mechanisms and the role of such QA processes in policy making at both the institutional and national levels are also investigated with reference to some case studies. Internal mechanisms are implemented through QA units in colleges/institutes, QA centers in universities, and projects for QA and qualifying for accreditation financed by the "Ministry of Higher Education". These projects are managed by a "Steering Committee for The Program of Continuous Improvement and Qualifying for Accreditation". The need for continuous improvement urged faculties to adopt certain policies to deal with points of weakness where some faculties intended to have a formal system to deal with student complaints, to handle resistance to change among faculty staff and administrative personnel, and to think of strategies for dealing with the bureaucracy. The needs of higher education systems in Egypt for external and internal QA measures are evident and therefore, several proposals for ensuring sustainability are suggested. "The National Authority for QA and Accreditation of Education" plays a pivotal role in external evaluation of QA activities in higher education institutions. Its basic principles are inspired from the good systems and practices aimed to assure quality of education. Cooperation of Egyptian higher education institutions with QA agencies are also discussed in this paper while referring to means of identification and dissemination of good practice for the purpose of continuous improvement.

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