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Eldin, E. M. T., M. I. Gilany, M. M. A. Aziz, and D. K. Ibrahim, "A travelling wave based fault location scheme for aged power cables", 3rd IEE International Conference on Reliability of Transmission and Distribution Networks (RTDN 2005): IET Digital Library, pp. 93-98, 2005. Abstract
Gilany, M. I., M. M. Abdel Aziz, and D. K. Ibrahim, "High Impedance Fault Detection Using a Communication based Element", 2nd IASTED International Conference Power and Energy Systems EuroPES ,Crete, Greece , 25-28 June, 2002, Creete, Greece, pp. 661-664, 2002. Abstract

Faults on distribution circuits are normally detected by simple overcurrent relays. Faults through high impedance (HIF) such as dry earth don’t have sufficient current to operate overcurrent relays. In some cases, fault current is less than the normal current. The broken cables laid on the soil, can be left energized for long periods of time. This presents a serious hazard to the general public with risks of electric shock, fire, etc. This paper describes a new scheme for high impedance fault detection using the concept of digital communications. The proposed model posses a high capability of distinguishing the HIF from normal switching conditions.