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Gilany, M. I., M. M. Abdel Aziz, and D. K. Ibrahim, "High Impedance Fault Detection Using a Communication based Element", 2nd IASTED International Conference Power and Energy Systems EuroPES ,Crete, Greece , 25-28 June, 2002, Creete, Greece, pp. 661-664, 2002. Abstract

Faults on distribution circuits are normally detected by simple overcurrent relays. Faults through high impedance (HIF) such as dry earth don’t have sufficient current to operate overcurrent relays. In some cases, fault current is less than the normal current. The broken cables laid on the soil, can be left energized for long periods of time. This presents a serious hazard to the general public with risks of electric shock, fire, etc. This paper describes a new scheme for high impedance fault detection using the concept of digital communications. The proposed model posses a high capability of distinguishing the HIF from normal switching conditions.

Eldin, E. S. T., D. K. Ibrahim, E. M. Aboul-Zahab, and S. M. Saleh, "High impedance faults detection in EHV transmission lines using the wavelet transforms", Power Engineering Society General Meeting, 2007. IEEE: IEEE, pp. 1-7, 2007. Abstract

High impedance faults (HIFs) are difficult to be detected by overcurrent protection relays. This paper presents an ATP/EMTP fault simulations studies based algorithm for high impedance fault detection in extra high voltage transmission line. The scheme recognizes the distortion of the voltage waveforms caused by the arcs usually associated with HIF. The discrete wavelet transform (DWT) based analysis, yields three phase voltage in the high frequency range which are fed to a classifier for pattern recognition. The classifier is based on an algorithm that uses recursive method to sum the absolute values of the high frequency signal generated over one cycle and shifting one sample. A HIF model of distribution is modified for EHV transmission lines. Characteristics of the proposed fault detection scheme are analyzed by extensive simulation studies that clearly reveal that the proposed method can accurately detect HIFs in
the EHV transmission lines.

Ibrahim, D. K., E. - S. T. Eldin, E. M. Aboul-Zahab, and S. M. Saleh, "High-impedance fault detection in EHV transmission lines", Power System Conference, 2008. MEPCON 2008. 12th International Middle-East: IEEE, pp. 192-199, 2008. Abstract


Ibrahim, D. K., A. F. Zobaa, E. Abo El-Zahab, and G. M. Abo-Hamad, "A Hybird Algorithm for Blocking Power Swings", Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Electrical Engineering, (ICEENG) Conference, 25-27 May, Cairo, Egypt, 2010., 2010. Abstract
Rashad, B. A. - E., D. K. Ibrahim, M. I. Gilany, A. H. M. E. D. S. A. Y. E. D. ABDELHAMID, and W. Abdelfattah, "Identification of broken conductor faults in interconnected transmission systems based on discrete wavelet transform", PLoS ONE, vol. 19, issue 1, pp. e0296773, 2024. AbstractWebsite

Interconnected transmission systems are increasingly spreading out in HV networks to enhance system efficiency, decrease reserve capacity, and improve service reliability. However, the protection of multi-terminal lines against Broken Conductor Fault (BCF) imposes significant difficulties in such networks as the conventional distance relays cannot detect BCF, as the BCF is not associated with a significant increase in current or reduction in voltage. Traditionally, the earth fault relays in transmission lines may detect such fault; Nonetheless, it suffers from a long delay time. Moreover, many of the nearby earth fault relays detect the BCF causing unnecessary trips and badly affecting the system stability. In this article, a novel single-end scheme based on extracting transient features from current signals by discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is proposed for detecting BCFs in interconnected HV transmission systems. The suggested scheme unit (SSU) is capable of accurately detecting all types of BCFs and shunt high impedance faults (SHIFs). It also adaptively calculates the applied threshold values. The accurate selectivity in multi-terminal lines is achieved based on a fault directional element by analyzing transient power polarity. The SSU discriminates between internal/external faults effectively utilizing the time difference observed between the first spikes of aerial and ground modes in the current signals. Different fault scenarios have been simulated on the IEEE 9-Bus, 230 kV interconnected system. The achieved results confirm the effectiveness, robustness, and reliability of SSU in detecting correctly BCFs as well as the SHIFs within only 24.5 ms. The SSU has confirmed its capability to be implemented in interconnected systems without any requirement for communication or synchronization between the SSU installed in multi-terminal lines.

Magdy, M., M. Elshahed, and D. K. Ibrahim, "Impacts of Distributed and Centralized Grid- Connected PV on Radial Distribution Networks", 21st International Middle East Power Systems Conference, MEPCON, Tanta University, Egypt, December 17-19, 2019. Abstract

This paper investigates the impacts of the centralized and distributed grid-connected photovoltaic systems on radial distribution networks. Different weather conditions are considered. Different PV penetration levels are investigated in both centralized and distributed PV configurations. Daily simulation is performed using the Open Distribution System Simulator (OpenDSS). The study will include the impacts on voltage magnitude, the voltage regulators, the voltage unbalance factor and losses during the day. The simulations results are presented in details and conclusions are drawn based on them.

Ibrahim, D. K., E. E. - D. A. El-Zahab, and M. Essam Mohamed, "Improving Distance Protection for Out-of-step Detection and Fault Detection during Power Swings", 16th International Middle East Power Systems Conference, MEPCON 2014, 2014. Abstract

To ensure high reliability of the power system, distance relays are blocked during power swings. However, if a fault occurs during a power swing, it should be detected and the unblocking function should be invoked to clear the fault as soon as possible. Distinguishing stable and unstable power swing is one of the challenging tasks for distance relays. This paper proposes a combined scheme for detectingfaults occurrence during power swings and accurate determination of power swing stability status. The proposed scheme utilizes a differential power-based technique and a negative sequence current based technique for detecting faults occurrence during power swings. Moreover a wavelet based power angle criteria based algorithm is applied for distinguishing stable and unstable power swings. The proposed scheme is extensively tested for symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults during slow and fast power swings for simulated tested power systems using ATP software.

Ibrahim, D. K., M. E. Rezk, A. El-Zahab, and E. El-Din, "Improving distance protection performance at zone1 using new adaptive tripping time scheme", Energy Conference (ENERGYCON), 2014 IEEE International: IEEE, pp. 528-535, 2014. Abstract

This paper presents a new adaptive tripping time scheme which provides high speed distance relay operation under fault conditions near the relay point and provides high secured detection for the faults occurred at the end of the protected transmission line with tripping time less than one power cycle. The proposed scheme automatically controls the data window length to adaptively speed up its response under various fault conditions. The advanced feature of this scheme provides capability for fast tripping decisions with secure operation. The proposed scheme possesses the advantage of removing decaying DC offset component in the current signals according to the length of data window, and compensates the capacitive current during the calculation of the fault impedance. Extensive simulations show that the proposed scheme provides better protection performance compared with the conventional schemes of the fixed data window.

Shafei, M. A. R., M. A. Tawfik, and D. K. Ibrahim, "Improving Energy Efficiency in Egyptian Airports: A Case Study of Sharm-Elshiekh Airport", 21st International Middle East Power Systems Conference, MEPCON, Tanta University, Egypt, December 17-19, 2019. Abstract

Airports can play a major role in reducing the burden on the national electric grid as they have several factors that make them optimum models for applying energy efficiency strategies. Accordingly, this paper presents a Dual-Dimension Strategy (DDS) to improve the energy efficiency in the airports. This strategy aims to study the opportunities of improving energy efficiency in a way that do not affect the comfort level of occupants, as well as studying the challenges of implementing PV power stations at or around the airports without affecting the safety of aviation. In this context, a case study was conducted at Sharm-Elshiekh airport as a high occupancy level airport to discuss the opportunities and challenges accompanied by the proposed strategy. The detailed simulation of the proposed strategy was carried out using the “DesignBuilder” software, which is automatically conducted with the “EnergyPlus” simulator. Results showed that airports have an opportunity to reduce its energy consumption by up to 25% monthly by using smart control systems such proposed fuzzy system. In addition, the implementation of PV stations in or round the airports can contribute in feeding the airports with a huge amount of clean energy according to the available space and the irradiation in the site of the airport. All of these results refer to save millions of carbon emissions which resulted from depending on fuel sources.

Ibrahim, D. K., A. F. Zobaa, E. A. El-Zahab, and G. M. Abo-Hamad, "Improving Mho and Quadrilateral Relays Performance during Power Swings", International Review of Electrical Engineering, vol. 5, issue 6: Praise Worthy Prize, FEDERICO II University 21 Claudio Naples I 80125 Italy, 2010. Abstract

Power swings, both stable and unstable, may precipitate wide spread outages to power systems with the result that cascade tripping of the power system elements occur. This paper deals with improving Mho and Quadrilateral relays performance under power swing conditions by discriminating between faults and power swings phenomenon. Distance relay may misinterpreted power swing as three-phase fault, but wavelet transform is able to discriminate clearly between power swings and faults. So, a logic block for fault detection based on the wavelet transform combined with the output of the conventional distance relay is proposed. Only voltage signals are used in wavelet relay to distinguish between fault and power swings conditions. The described scheme has been tested on a double line simulated power system using MatLab program.

Gouda, O. E., D. K. Ibrahim, D. H. Helmi, D. M. Khalifa, and G. M. Amer, "Improving Transmission Line Performance using Transient Based Adaptive SPAR", 14th International Middle East Power Systems Conference (MEPCON’10), Cairo University, Egypt, 2010. Abstract

Adaptive SPAR offers many advantages over conventional techniques. In the case of transient faults, the arcing extinction time can be accurately determined and in the case of a permanent fault, breaker reclosure can be avoided. This paper describes, in some detail, the design of a new Adaptive SPAR technique that extracts high frequencies transients, from the CVT. The main case of study in this paper is the High Dam / Nagh Hamady, Nagh Hamady /Assuit 500 kV double circuit transmission system in the Egyptian network. Fault scenario cases representing different fault locations, inception angles, actual representation to secondary arc characteristics, and with/without shunt reactor existence were extracted from simulation work, and then verified through real field records in that system. The outcome of this study indicates that the proposed technique can be used as an effective means of achieving an adaptive single pole auto reclosure scheme.

Zeinhom, A. N., D. K. Ibrahim, and M. Gilany, "Integrated Fault Zone Discrimination and Fault Location Algorithm for Series FACTS-based Transmission Lines", 2018 Saudi Arabia Smart Grid (SASG), Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, 11-13 Dec. 2018. Abstract

Discrimination and location of faults in Flexible Alternating Current Transmission Systems (FACTS) have several challenges in power systems. This is because of the errors in the measured impedance due to FACTS control actions. The presence of series FACTS in a transmission line complicates both the fault location and discrimination between faults behind and in front of the FACTS device. This paper proposes an integrated solution for both fault zone discrimination (either in front of or behind the FACTS device) and fault location for series FACTS-compensated transmission lines. Online calculations are carried out to estimate the percentage of compensation. After fault inception, a wavelet-based algorithm is used to decide whether the fault is in front of the FACTS device or behind it. Then, a conventional distance protection algorithm is used to estimate the fault zone. After that, synchronized data signals from both ends are used to locate the exact location offline. The algorithm is tested using a real data for a 380 kV, 400 km series-compensated line in Saudi Arabia using MATLAB/SIMULINK. Different types of faults are applied to validate the effectiveness of the algorithm. Metal-Oxide Varistor (MOV) nonlinearity is also considered. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the algorithm.

Abdel-Aziz, M. M., M. I. gilany, D. K. Ibrahim, and A. F. Abdel-Rheem, "Islanding Detection Using Rate of Change of Zero Sequence of Second Harmonic Voltage", International Journal Of Renewable Energy Research, vol. 10, issue 2, pp. 1514-1524, 2020. Abstract

Integration of Distributed Generation (DG) on the power system networks causes several difficulties, especially for the system protection. One of the important problems associated with system protection is the islanding that takes place when a DG unit (or group of units) continues to energize a part of the load separated from the main utility. As a result, many obstacles occur such as voltage and frequency fluctuation, in addition to personnel safety problems during maintenance. In this paper, the islanding problem is discussed and also the previous islanding detection techniques are investigated to get an efficient technique for islanding detection. The proposed technique is based on estimating the Rate of Change of Zero Sequence of Second Harmonic Voltage at the Point of Common Coupling (PCC). The proposed technique is extensively tested for inverter-based DG includes wind turbines with double-fed induction generator (DFIG). The proposed technique could distinguish the islanding operation correctly within only one cycle without non-detection zone (NDZ). In addition, it could differentiate between the islanding operation at different values for active and reactive power mismatch. Several scenarios are tested such as normal load variation, capacitor switching and power quality disturbances like voltage sags and swells. Faults and outage of one of DGs are also tested.

Ibrahim, A. N. A. A., M. A. R. Shafei, and D. K. Ibrahim, "Linearized biogeography based optimization tuned PID-P controller for load frequency control of interconnected power system", Power Systems Conference (MEPCON), 2017 Nineteenth International Middle East: IEEE, pp. 1081-1087, 2017. Abstract
Saber, A. M., T. A. Boghdady, and D. K. Ibrahim, "Multi-objective Sizing of a Standalone Renewable Power System for Offshore Oil and Gas Applications", International Journal Of Renewable Energy Research, vol. 11, issue 4, pp. 1597-1608, 2021. Abstract

The potential of electrifying Offshore Oil and Gas platforms by Hybrid Renewable Energy Sources (HRESs) was paid attention to recently. As sensitive loads, these installations require a high level of reliability, which requires special consideration in modeling. This load sensitivity contradicts the intermittent nature of HRESs like winds and waves. Implementing batteries in a similar energy system could help decrease the variation in the generated power. However, practical batteries are known to degrade over many factors. In this article, a study is presented on quantifying the enhancement in the reliability of supply caused by coupling of a Wind-Wave (WW) hybrid offshore energy converter (named: HOEC) unit with a Lithium-Based Energy Storage System (LBESS), while considering LBESS’s degradation and load sensitivity, and optimizing the battery size and WW ratios. The optimization is solved using a semi-analytical approach and compared against two heuristic algorithms, which are particle swarm optimization and pattern search algorithm. Results demonstrate possible system reliability enhancement while optimizing the system designed using the proposed approach.

Saleh, S. M., E. M. Aboul-Zahab, E. Tag Eldin, D. K. Ibrahim, and M. I. Gilany, "Neural network-based technique used for recovery the CCVT primary signal", Power & Energy Society General Meeting, 2009. PES'09. IEEE: IEEE, pp. 1-7, 2009. Abstract

The coupling capacitor voltage transformers transient response during faults can cause protective relay mal-operation or even prevent tripping. This paper presents the CCVT transient response errors and the use of artificial neural network (ANN) to correct the CCVT secondary waveform distortion. In this paper, an ANN program is developed to recover the primary voltage from the distorted secondary voltage. The ANN is trained to achieve the inverse transfer function of the coupling capacitor voltage transformer (CCVT), which provides a good estimate of the true primary voltage from the distorted secondary voltage. The neural network is developed and trained using MATLAB simulations. The accuracy of the simulation program is
confirmed by comparison of its response with that of the target value from the simulation data.

Ibrahim, D. K., E. E. D. A. El Zahab, and S. A. E. A. Mostafa, "New Coordination Approach to Minimize the Number of Re-adjusted Relays When Adding DGs in Interconnected Power Systems", Journal of Electrical Engineering & Technology (JEET), vol. 12, issue 2, pp. 502-512, 2017. AbstractWebsite

The presence of DGs in power system networks tends to negatively affect the protective relays coordination. The proposed method introduces an approach to minimize the numbers of relays that acquire new settings on contrary to their original settings (case without DG), to achieve relays coordination in case of adding DG, since relays coordination with minimum number of relays of readjusted settings represents economical target, especially in networks containing mixture of electromechanical and adaptive digital relays. The scheme decides the possible minimum number of re-adjusted relays and their locations in an optimum manner to achieve proper relays coordination in case of adding DGs. The proposed approach is divided into two successive phases; the first phase is stopped when the first relays coordination solution is achieved. The second phase increases the possibility to keep higher number of relays at their original settings than that obtained in first phase through achieving multi solutions of relays coordination. The proposed approach is implemented and effectively tested on the well-known IEEE-39 bus test system.

Ibrahim, D. K., E. E. D. A. El Zahab, and S. A. E. A. Mostafa, "New coordination approach to minimize the number of re-adjusted relays when adding DGs in interconnected power systems with a minimum value of fault current limiter", International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, vol. 85: Elsevier, pp. 32-41, 2017. AbstractWebsite

The presence of DGs in power networks tends to negatively affect relays coordination. Adding fault current limiters FCLs is one of the possible solutions to mitigate negative impacts of DGs addition on protection systems. Traditional schemes have estimated the minimum value of FCL to restore relays coordination when adding DGs without resetting of any relays. That minimum value of FCL in such case is called a critical value, where below this value the relays coordination will be lost.
Nowadays, designing FCL to simultaneously achieve two conflicted objectives of good performance and low cost is considered a great challenge. The paper introduces a new scheme to determine to what extent we could decrease FCL impedance value below its critical value with re-adjusting the original settings of only one adaptive relay to get relays coordination. Decreasing FCL value below its critical value will reduce the cost especially for superconductivity FCL. The proposed scheme can determine the location of that selected relay to be an adaptive one and estimate its re-adjusted new settings to be applied when DGs are added while inserting the reduced value of FCL.
Actually the proposed scheme can be applied for any networks irrespective of the number of added DGs and their capacities; while having an adaptive relay is the only requirement to implement it. The proposed approach is implemented and effectively tested on the large well-known interconnected IEEE-39 bus test system with 84 relays. Its results are compared with other approaches where, no readjusted relays settings are applied. A noteworthy advantage of the proposed scheme is the ability to implement a reduced FCL value than the critical value, by adjusting only one relay settings in the whole network. The proposed scheme may also be extended to re-adjust settings of more than one relay and get further reduced value of FCL. Furthermore, it is also shown that a more optimum value of the total operating time of all primary relays for near end faults is achieved when applying the proposed method rather than other traditional schemes.

Ibrahim, D. K., and M. E. Rezk, "A New Frequency Domain Filter for Precise Phasor Computation of Electrical Power Current", Journal of Electrical Engineering, JEE, vol. 18, issue Edition 2, pp. 73-80, 2018. Abstract

Digital filters of electrical protective relays play primary roles in calculating the fundamental phasors of electrical power signals. In most fault cases, large amounts of decaying DC components are included in the current signals during the fault period. Decaying DC component significantly reduces the precision and convergence speed of all conventional frequency-domain filters such as Fourier and Walsh filters. In this investigation, this paper introduces a new frequency-domain filtering algorithm to remove the decaying DC components and accurately capture the fundamental power system phasors for digital protective relays. This is executed by means of a mathematical procedure using digital signal processing techniques. The proposed filter is tested for a wide variety of current signals during different fault conditions to assess its performance. The simulation results show that the proposed filtering algorithm has a superior performance at a wide range of decaying components.

Gabr, M. A., D. K. Ibrahim, E. S. Ahmed, and M. I. Gilany, "A new impedance-based fault location scheme for overhead unbalanced radial distribution networks", Electric Power Systems Research, vol. 142: Elsevier, pp. 153-162, 2017. AbstractWebsite

This paper proposes an analytical impedance-based fault location scheme for distribution systems. The approach is based on voltage and current measurements extracted at only one-end feeding substation.Modal transformation is implemented to decompose the coupled three phase equations due to mutual effects into decoupled ones, and hence directly calculating fault distance in each section without iterative processes. The proposed approach considers various aspects of distribution systems: intermediate loads along the feeder, tapped laterals and sub-laterals at various nodes, time varying loads, and unbalanced operations. The proposed algorithm is extensively investigated on a typical real 11 kV distribution system,South Delta electricity sector, Egypt using MATLAB environment. Different cases are studied considering various loading conditions, varied fault resistance values and different fault types. The achieved results ensure the effectiveness of the proposed fault locator irrespective to fault conditions. Besides, the robustness of the proposed scheme against unbalanced loading, network topology change and non homogeneous network sections is also confirmed.

Saleh, S. M., and D. K. Ibrahim, "Non-Linear HIF Detection and Classification for Egyptian 500 kV Transmission Line", 14th International Middle East Power Systems Conference (MEPCON’10), Cairo University, Egypt, 2010. Abstract

High impedance faults (HIFs) are difficult to be detected or classified by overcurrent or distance relays. This paper presents a scheme for high impedance fault detection and classification in extra high voltage transmission line. The scheme recognizes the distortion of the current waveforms caused by the arcs usually associated with HIF using a discrete wavelet transform (DWT) based pattern recognition. The scheme uses a recursive method to sum the absolute values of the high frequency signal generated of line current signals measured at one substation end over one cycle. Proposed detector and classifier are tested under a variety of fault conditions on Egyptian 500 kV transmission line system by extensive simulation studies using HIF model of distribution system that modified to transmission lines. In addition, a real time HIF data recorded is used to validate the performance of the proposed scheme. All achieved results clearly reveal that the proposed scheme can accurately detect and classify HIFs in the transmission lines unaffected by fault type, fault inception angle, fault resistance, and fault location.

Saleh, S. M., and D. K. Ibrahim, "Non-linear high impedance earth faults locator for series compensated transmission lines", Power Systems Conference (MEPCON), 2017 Nineteenth International Middle East: IEEE, pp. 108-113, 2017. Abstract
Shafei, M. A. R., D. K. Ibrahim, A. M. Ali, M. A. A. Younes, and E. E. L. - D. A. EL-Zahab, "Novel approach for hydrokinetic turbine applications", Energy for Sustainable Development, vol. 27: Elsevier, pp. 120–126, 2015. AbstractWebsite

By 2017, Egypt is expected to finish its sixth hydropower plant which is associated with the new Assiut barrage. Based on any hydraulic structure's design, there is enormous kinetic energy created downstream of the gates. This super power water jet generated under dams/barrage gates creates a destructive scouring effect downstream of the gates. In this work, a novel approach for hydrokinetic energy application is presented. The new approach proposes installing a farm of hydrokinetic turbines on the stilling basin of the spillways of the barrage's gate. This approach does not only magnify the total electric energy which was untapped in the past but also dissipates the enormous kinetic energy downstream of the gates. The total expected captured electric power from the barrage reaches 14.88 MW compared to 32 MW rated value of the existing hydropower plant.

Ismail, M., M. H. Alham, and D. K. Ibrahim, "A novel approach for optimal hybrid energy decarbonization using multi-criteria decision analysis: Abu Rudeis, Egypt as a case study", Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 290, issue 15 August , pp. Article no. 117199, 2023. AbstractWebsite

Converting from a complete fossil fuel energy system to a decarbonized one is crucial to mitigating climate
change and protecting human health. Hybrid energy sources are better than producing energy from a single
technology. The combination of renewable energy and fuel generators allows users to cover seasonal fluctuations of resources and protects them from the unpredictability of fuel prices and supply. Nonetheless, the large-scale industrial demand presents a real challenge due to its consistency throughout the day and the intermittent nature of renewable sources. This research proposes a novel approach for optimal hybrid energy decarbonization for any demand type in general and industrial demand in particular. The proposed framework is developed by integrating the Hybrid Optimization of Multiple Energy Resources (HOMER) for the simulations of Hybrid Configurations (HCs), the Electrical Transient Analysis Program (ETAP) for the stability studies, and the Potentially All Pairwise RanKings of all possible Alternatives (PAPRIKA) method to rank the resulting configurations.
An industrial oil and gas complex with high wind and solar resource availability is adopted as a study case. It is
located in Abu Rudeis, Egypt, and currently utilizes only 11 Gas Turbine Generators (GTGs) to generate electricity. Five different HCs are investigated, including PV and wind systems. The proposed approach considers technical, environmental, economic, and socio-political criteria, with a total of 21 sub-criteria, and reveals that incorporating a wind farm of nine 2-MW wind turbines with the GTGs is the Optimal Hybrid Configuration (OHC).

Khalil, E., T. A. Boghdady, M. H. Alham, and D. K. Ibrahim, "A novel cascade-loop controller for load frequency control of isolated microgrid via dandelion optimizer", Ain Shams Engineering Journal, vol. 15, issue 3, pp. Article no. 102526, 2024. AbstractWebsite

In fast-growing isolated microgrids (IMGs), load frequency control (LFC) ensures optimal power quality for end
users. Stochastic grids, notably with renewable energy resources (RESs), require robust and intelligently designed LFC schemes. Thus, this research presents a novel cascade-loop controller combining a fractional order proportional derivative with a filter and a fractional order-proportional tilt integral derivative (FPDN-FPTID)
to improve LFC for single and multi-area IMGs. Recent dandelion optimization adjusts FPDN-FPTID controller
settings. Anti-windup keeps the controller out of the non-linear zone for low inertia IMGs. It concerns various
sources’ maximum generating rates. The two-area IMG model shows its potential and scalability. Extensive
MATLAB/Simulink simulations show that the FPDN-FPTID controller outperforms numerous published controllers, either single or cascade-loop, in minimum error criteria, undershoots/ overshoots/settling times, frequency, and tie-line power deviation following load and RES variations. Finally, the sensitivity study indicates
the suggested controller stabilizes the system despite ±25 % parameter changes.