Atta, M. E. E. - D., D. K. Ibrahim, and M. I. gilany, "Broken Bar Fault Detection and Diagnosis Techniques for Induction Motors and Drives: State of the Art", IEEE Access, vol. 10, pp. 88504 - 88526, 2022. AbstractWebsite

Motors are the higher energy-conversion devices that consume around 40% of the global electrical generated energy. Induction motors are the most popular motor type due to their reliability, robustness, and low cost. Therefore, both condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of induction motor faults have motivated considerable research efforts. In this paper, a comprehensive review of the recent techniques proposed in the literature for broken bar faults detection and diagnosis is presented. This paper mainly investigates the fault detection methods in line-fed and inverter-fed motors proposed after 2015 and published in most relevant journals and conferences. The introduced review has deeply discussed the main features of the reported methods and compared them in many different aspects. Finally, the study has highlighted the main issues and the gaps that require more attention from researchers in this field.

Fayoud, A. B., H. M. Sharaf, and D. K. Ibrahim, "Optimal coordination of DOCRs in interconnected networks using shifted user-defined two-level characteristics", International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems, vol. 142, issue Part A, pp. Article no. 108298, 2022. Abstract

This paper introduces a protection scheme for interconnected networks based on proposed Directional Overcurrent Relays (DOCRs) with user-defined two-level characteristics. By getting usage of the capabilities available in modern digital DOCRs, the proposed relay will have two user-defined characteristics; one for its primary operation and another for its backup operation (two-level characteristics) to fit a specific application or system. The coordination between the proposed relays is formulated and solved as a non-linear optimization problem to minimize their operating time and reduce the thermal impact caused by short circuit currents through electrical equipment while maintaining the technical constraints.
Extensive comparative studies have been performed to ensure the effectiveness of the proposed protection
scheme. Firstly, the performance of the traditional one-level characteristic relay (COLC) with two settings is
compared to the conventional two-level characteristic relay (CTLC) with three settings. Then a further investigation is carried out by suggesting increasing the number of settings to seven, named as the user-defined two-level characteristic relay (UDTLC), and then to nine settings, named as the shifted-user-defined two-level characteristic relay (SUDTLC). Finally, different multi-objective functions with proper weighting factors are investigated to determine the most effective one with the best performance for the proposed idea.
The distribution portion of the IEEE 30-bus system has been used to test and verify the proposed characteristics extensively. The optimal coordination problem is solved using the fmincon function in MATLAB. Based on the achieved results, the proposed characteristics of UDTLC and SUDTLC guaranteed a considerable reduction in operating times. In addition, the achieved results deduced that using a different multi-objective formulation has little impact on reducing operating time due to using the proposed characteristics UDTLC and SUDTLC, which means solving the coordination problem is mainly dependent on the applied characteristics.

Mokhtar, N. M., H. Mohamed Sharaf, D. K. Ibrahim, and A. ’F. El’Gharably, "Proposed Ranked Strategy for Technical and Economical Enhancement of EVs Charging with High Penetration Level", IEEE Access, vol. 10, pp. 44738-44755, 2022. Abstract

Car exhaust is one of the most common causes of ozone hole aggravation, electrical vehicles (EVs) represent a promising solution to avoid this problem. Despite the benefits of EVs, their random charging behavior causes some difficulties regarding the electric network performance, such as increased energy losses and voltage deviations. This paper aims to achieve the proper scheduling of the EVs charging process, avoid its negative impacts on the network, and satisfy the EVs users’ requirements. The EVs charging process is formulated as an optimization problem and solved using particle swarm optimization. The optimization problem formulation considers the EV arrival and departure times and the state of charge required by the user. Different strategies such as separated, accumulated, and ranked strategies with continuous or interrupted fixed charging have been applied to solve the uncoordinated EVs charging problem. These strategies are extensively tested on the modified IEEE 31 bus system (499-node network), using the combination of both Open DSS and MATLAB m-files. The simulation results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed accumulated ranked strategy with interrupted fixed charging in improving the overall power system performance. The achieved improvements include minimizing: the peak power consumed, the peak power losses, and the voltage drop. Moreover, the cost of the EVs charging in most of the feeders has been decreased to a satisfying value. A comparison between the proposed strategy and some previously reported strategies has been performed to ensure the technical and economic enhancement of the proposed strategy.

Atta, M. E. E. - D., D. K. Ibrahim, and M. I. gilany, "Detection and Diagnosis of Bearing Faults under Fixed and Time-Varying Speed Conditions Using Persistence Spectrum and Multi-Scale Structural Similarity Index", IEEE Sensors Journal, vol. 22, issue 3, pp. 2637 – 2646, 2022. Abstract

With the widespread use of variable speed drives, a robust scheme that can detect and diagnose bearing faults under fixed and variable speed conditions becomes essential for reliable operation. Unfortunately, most of the reported methods in the literature are dedicated to working under fixed speed and will face challenges under variable speed conditions. Besides, most of them require detailed bearing information that may be unavailable in the real world. Therefore, in this paper, a new scheme is proposed for bearing faults detection and diagnosis under fixed and time varying speed conditions. The proposed scheme is based on the analysis of vibration signals using the persistence spectrum that can provide images rich with health-related features largely independent from rotating speed. Then, the produced image is compared with priorly stored images of the persistence spectrum of a healthy case. This comparison is performed using the multi-scale structural similarity index, which is a robust basis for images comparison without the need for training or expert knowledge. The obtained index is compared against an adaptive threshold for fault detection. Upon detecting a fault, the persistence spectrum image is compared with that of stored different fault types for fault diagnosis. The proposed scheme is extensively validated using three experimental datasets under different speed conditions. The results show that it can detect bearing faults in an earlier stage without the need for bearing specifications or shaft speed. Moreover, it can successfully diagnose bearing faults severity with accuracy reaching 100% with the minimum required data.

Shafei, M. A. R., D. K. Ibrahim, and M. Bahaa, "Application of PSO tuned fuzzy logic controller for LFC of two-area power system with redox flow battery and PV solar park", Ain Shams Engineering Journal, vol. 13, issue 5, pp. Article No. 101710, 2022. Abstract

Nowadays, integrating large scale renewable energy sources, like solar PV parks, raises challenges for Load Frequency Controllers (LFC). The output of PV varies continuously, which requires a robust LFC deals
logically without continuous tuning and parameters optimization. In this paper, a fuzzy logic controller (FLC) is proposed to act as the main LFC instead of the traditional proportional–integral–derivative (PID) controller. The dynamic performance of FLC is enhanced by optimizing its parameters for different cost functions using particle swarm optimization technique (PSO). Another two FLCs will be added to PV system to act as an output controller instead of maximum power point tracker (MPPT) to enhance the overall system performance. To increase system reliability, a fast active power source called redox flow battery (RFB) is added in the proposed model as a frequency stabilizer. RFB can deeply discharge up to 90% with theoretically limitless number of duty cycles and has fast time response for severe load changes. The
importance of these proposed controllers side by side with RFB is to avoid disconnecting solar parks during
heavy cloudy days while preserving on maximizing its output during these periods. The superiority of the proposed FLC is examined by evaluating its performance compared to another control approach called PID-P (PID controller with P controller in the inner feedback loop). Finally, a comprehensive sensitivity analysis is also presented to investigate the controller robustness for extensive changes in power system parameters and loading.

El-Sayed, L. M. A., D. K. Ibrahim, M. I. gilany, and A. ' F. El'Gharably, "Enhancing Distance Relay Performance Using Wide-Area Protection for Detecting Symmetrical/Unsymmetrical Faults during Power Swings", Alexandria Engineering Journal, vol. 61, issue 9, pp. 6869-6886, 2022. Abstract

The distance protection in transmission networks is vulnerable to malfunction during a power swing. Distance relays have a power swing blocking (PSB) function that prevents the relay from operating during a power swing. However, during a power swing, the relay will be able to identify and clear any fault. This paper offers a scheme for detecting symmetrical/unsymmetrical faults through power swing by estimating the maximum rate of change of a (DI- DV) ellipse circumference.
The ellipse circumference of each phase is constructed at each power frequency cycle to consistently tracking the distinction in the measured current and voltage differences between the line’s two ends. The main feature of the suggested work compared to previous works is the ability to detect numerous high impedance faults (HIFs) during single mode (slow/fast) power swing or multi-mode power swing in addition to the opportunity to detect faults during asymmetrical power swing. The suggested scheme is tested in a two-area, four-machine power system and tested also in the standard three-machine, nine-bus system using ATP software. The results reveal that the improved protective scheme performs well in fault conditions with and without power swing, and they confirm the scheme’s suitability for interconnected networks.

Atta, M. E. E. - D., D. K. Ibrahim, M. I. gilany, and A. F. Zobaa, "Adaptive Scheme for Detecting Induction Motor Incipient Broken Bar Faults at Various Load and Inertia Conditions", Sensors, vol. 22, issue 1, pp. Article 365, 2022. Abstract

This paper introduces a novel online adaptive protection scheme to detect and diagnose broken bar faults (BBFs) in induction motors during steady-state conditions based on an analytical approach. The proposed scheme can detect precisely adjacent and non-adjacent BBFs in their incipient phases under different inertia, variable loading conditions, and noisy environments. The main idea of the proposed scheme is monitoring the variation in the phase angle of the main sideband frequency components by applying Fast Fourier Transform to only one phase of the stator current. The scheme does not need any predetermined settings but only one of the stator current signals during the commissioning phase. The threshold value is calculated adaptively to discriminate between healthy and faulty cases. Besides, an index is proposed to designate the fault severity. The performance of this scheme is verified using two simulated motors with different designs by applying the finite element method in addition to a real experimental dataset. The results show that the proposed scheme can effectively detect half, one, two, or three broken bars in adjacent/non-adjacent versions and also estimate their severity under different operating conditions and in a noisy environment, with accuracy reaching 100% independently from motor parameters.

Saber, A. M., T. A. Boghdady, and D. K. Ibrahim, "Multi-objective Sizing of a Standalone Renewable Power System for Offshore Oil and Gas Applications", International Journal Of Renewable Energy Research, vol. 11, issue 4, pp. 1597-1608, 2021. Abstract

The potential of electrifying Offshore Oil and Gas platforms by Hybrid Renewable Energy Sources (HRESs) was paid attention to recently. As sensitive loads, these installations require a high level of reliability, which requires special consideration in modeling. This load sensitivity contradicts the intermittent nature of HRESs like winds and waves. Implementing batteries in a similar energy system could help decrease the variation in the generated power. However, practical batteries are known to degrade over many factors. In this article, a study is presented on quantifying the enhancement in the reliability of supply caused by coupling of a Wind-Wave (WW) hybrid offshore energy converter (named: HOEC) unit with a Lithium-Based Energy Storage System (LBESS), while considering LBESS’s degradation and load sensitivity, and optimizing the battery size and WW ratios. The optimization is solved using a semi-analytical approach and compared against two heuristic algorithms, which are particle swarm optimization and pattern search algorithm. Results demonstrate possible system reliability enhancement while optimizing the system designed using the proposed approach.

Abo-Hamad, G. M., D. K. Ibrahim, E. A. M. Zahab, and A. F. Zobaa, "Adaptive Mho Distance Protection for Interconnected Transmission Lines Compensated with Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor", Energies , vol. 14, issue 9, pp. Article 2477, 2021. Abstract

This paper proposes an adaptive dynamic Mho distance relay based on a phase comparator scheme for protecting interconnected transmission networks compensated with a Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC). The proposed relay uses an impedance index factor to initiate the fault detection subroutine. The RMS of the positive sequence current of the faulted loop and the TCSC terminal current are compared for TCSC zone identification. A phase comparator for ground and phase distance elements is proposed, relying on the positive sequence voltage as a polarized memory quantity, while the operating and polarizing quantities are developed using estimated TCSC impedance to mitigate its negative impact. The proposed scheme is easy in implementation and independent on synchronized data transfer, as minimum communication requirements are needed. To evaluate the performance of the proposed scheme, extensive simulation studies were carried out on an IEEE9 bus system compensated with TCSC for different firing angles covering four modes of TCSC operations, different fault types, and fault locations. In addition, an IEEE-39 bus network, as a large interconnected system, is tested for validation purposes. The achieved results designate the precision of the proposed scheme. Moreover, the results indicate its effectiveness for fault resistance tolerance, close-in three phase faults, and stable power swing phenomenon compared with conventional relays.

Dawoud, M. A., D. K. Ibrahim, M. I. gilany, and A. ’F. El’Gharably, "Robust Coordination Scheme for Microgrids Protection Based on the Rate of Change of Voltage", IEEE Access, vol. 9, pp. 156283-156296, 2021. Abstract

The wide application of microgrid concept leads to challenges for the traditional protection
of distribution networks because of the changes in short circuit level and network topology during the two
modes of microgrid operation. This paper proposes a promising solution for these problems by offering
a new protection coordination scheme not affected by the variation of short circuit level or the changes
in network topology. The proposed protection scheme is based on local measurements at relay location
with low sampling frequency by computing the rate of change of fundamental voltage (ROCOV) to detect
different fault types, identify the faulty zone accurately and guarantee robust coordination between primary
and backup relays. The proposed coordination scheme can be achieved by optimizing either two settings for
relay characteristic (time dial setting and pickup value) or four settings (time dial setting, pickup and the
parameters that control the characteristic shape (A & B)). The proposed scheme is extensively tested using
MATLAB simulations on the modied IEEE 14 bus meshed network embedded with synchronous/inverter-
based distributed generation units under wide variations in operating conditions and short circuit levels
for both grid-connected and islanded modes of operation. The achieved results conrm that the proposed
coordination scheme can maintain the coordination between primary and backup relays for different fault
locations, types and different topologies. It provides selective, reliable, and secured microgrid operation
compared with conventional schemes, using fault current limiters and some other techniques discussed in
the literature.

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