Khalil, E., T. A. Boghdady, M. H. Alham, and D. K. Ibrahim, "A novel multi-objective tuning formula for load frequency controllers in an isolated low-inertia microgrid incorporating PV/wind/FC/BESS", Journal of Energy Storage, vol. 82, issue 30 March 2024, pp. Article no. 110606, 2024. AbstractWebsite

Load frequency control (LFC) is vital for isolated microgrids (IMGs), especially when uncertain renewable energy sources (RESs) are present. Enhancing LFC schemes relies mainly on three tracks. Adding new resources to IMG structures is the first track, designing novel controller structures for LFC schemes is the second, and the third is improving controller tuning procedures in the LFC schemes. This research suggests an innovative multi-objective formula (MOF) for controller tuning that combines a novel error criterion termed the integral-square time absolute error of frequency change with the integral-square of IMG controllers' signals. Tested IMG includes multi-sources of diesel engine generators, fuel cells, battery energy storage technologies, and RESs (like photovoltaic and wind turbines). The proposed MOF tuning is evaluated compared to four different objective functions, which are the integral-absolute error (IAE), integral-time absolute error (ITAE), integral-square error (ISE), and integral-time square error (ITSE). The proportional-integral-derivative (PID), fractional-order, and cascade PID controllers are implemented to appraise the proposed MOF extensively against all these single objectives. Statistical analyses are accomplished comprehensively to verify the effectiveness of the artificial rabbits' optimization algorithm (ARO) in competition with other recent optimization algorithms to tune different controllers utilized in the LFC schemes of the examined IMG based on tested objectives. Therefore, ARO is applied to optimize controller settings by combining system nonlinearities with IMG sources' maximal generation rate constraints. The comparative analysis considers settling times, overshoots, IAE, ITAE, ISE, and ITSE performance indices. MATLAB/Simulink simulations confirmed the ability of the suggested MOF tuning to stabilize the system and keep improving performance indices, significantly attaining the minimum settling time even for massive three-type load fluctuations. The first type is step disturbances ranging between 0.1 and 0.25 p.u, the second is varying step disturbances every 5 s, and the third is severe dynamic random load shifts from −0.2 to 0.2 p.u. In addition, the MOF outperforms other competitors' tuning formulas while adding fluctuations of RESs with load disturbances. Furthermore, the robustness analysis is conducted for the applied controllers based on the proposed MOF tuning approach by changing the IMG nominal parameters with ±25 % and adding system nonlinearities. The analysis ensured its efficacy in preserving system stability. Finally, the stability test in the frequency domain using the MATLAB/control design tool verified system stability when different LFC controllers were tuned based on the proposed MOF tuning.

Rashad, B. A. - E., D. K. Ibrahim, M. I. Gilany, A. H. M. E. D. S. A. Y. E. D. ABDELHAMID, and W. Abdelfattah, "Identification of broken conductor faults in interconnected transmission systems based on discrete wavelet transform", PLoS ONE, vol. 19, issue 1, pp. e0296773, 2024. AbstractWebsite

Interconnected transmission systems are increasingly spreading out in HV networks to enhance system efficiency, decrease reserve capacity, and improve service reliability. However, the protection of multi-terminal lines against Broken Conductor Fault (BCF) imposes significant difficulties in such networks as the conventional distance relays cannot detect BCF, as the BCF is not associated with a significant increase in current or reduction in voltage. Traditionally, the earth fault relays in transmission lines may detect such fault; Nonetheless, it suffers from a long delay time. Moreover, many of the nearby earth fault relays detect the BCF causing unnecessary trips and badly affecting the system stability. In this article, a novel single-end scheme based on extracting transient features from current signals by discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is proposed for detecting BCFs in interconnected HV transmission systems. The suggested scheme unit (SSU) is capable of accurately detecting all types of BCFs and shunt high impedance faults (SHIFs). It also adaptively calculates the applied threshold values. The accurate selectivity in multi-terminal lines is achieved based on a fault directional element by analyzing transient power polarity. The SSU discriminates between internal/external faults effectively utilizing the time difference observed between the first spikes of aerial and ground modes in the current signals. Different fault scenarios have been simulated on the IEEE 9-Bus, 230 kV interconnected system. The achieved results confirm the effectiveness, robustness, and reliability of SSU in detecting correctly BCFs as well as the SHIFs within only 24.5 ms. The SSU has confirmed its capability to be implemented in interconnected systems without any requirement for communication or synchronization between the SSU installed in multi-terminal lines.

Khalil, E., T. A. Boghdady, M. H. Alham, and D. K. Ibrahim, "A novel cascade-loop controller for load frequency control of isolated microgrid via dandelion optimizer", Ain Shams Engineering Journal, vol. 15, issue 3, pp. Article no. 102526, 2024. AbstractWebsite

In fast-growing isolated microgrids (IMGs), load frequency control (LFC) ensures optimal power quality for end
users. Stochastic grids, notably with renewable energy resources (RESs), require robust and intelligently designed LFC schemes. Thus, this research presents a novel cascade-loop controller combining a fractional order proportional derivative with a filter and a fractional order-proportional tilt integral derivative (FPDN-FPTID)
to improve LFC for single and multi-area IMGs. Recent dandelion optimization adjusts FPDN-FPTID controller
settings. Anti-windup keeps the controller out of the non-linear zone for low inertia IMGs. It concerns various
sources’ maximum generating rates. The two-area IMG model shows its potential and scalability. Extensive
MATLAB/Simulink simulations show that the FPDN-FPTID controller outperforms numerous published controllers, either single or cascade-loop, in minimum error criteria, undershoots/ overshoots/settling times, frequency, and tie-line power deviation following load and RES variations. Finally, the sensitivity study indicates
the suggested controller stabilizes the system despite ±25 % parameter changes.

Elhabashy, M. M., H. M. Sharaf, and D. K. Ibrahim, "Reliable protection for static synchronous series compensated double-circuit transmission lines based on positive sequence active power calculations using PMUs", Electric Power Systems Research, vol. 223, issue October 2023, pp. Article no.109695, 2023. AbstractWebsite

Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC) allows dynamic control capabilities of transmitted power. Unfortunately, inserting SSSC in transmission lines (TLs) disturbs impedance-based distance relays as their directionality and reachability are affected by overreaching or underreaching. This paper proposes an approach for protecting double-circuit TLs compensated with SSSC. It relies on the centralized wide-area protection architecture to calculate a proposed driven index: the rate of change of positive sequence active power difference. Phasor measurement units (PMUs) at TL ends estimate voltage and current phasors to calculate the positive sequence active power at TL ends and send them to the system protection center that evaluates the index and gives the trip decision or not. Ensuring the sensitivity, dependability, and security of the approach is essential. So, the overall scheme integrates two other algorithms. One is based on the polarities of the incremental power at both ends to determine whether the fault is internal or external. The other evaluates the phase angle of the integrated impedance to deactivate the power swing-blocking function for fault detection. The scheme's effectiveness is validated comprehensively through extensive simulation tests for fault and system conditions. The results show that the proposed approach is fast, secure, selective, and reliable.

Alham, M. H., M. F. Gad, and D. K. Ibrahim, "Applying Marine Predators Algorithm for Optimizing the Layout of Wind Turbines", International Journal of Renewable Energy Research, vol. 13, issue 2, pp. 730-740, 2023. AbstractWebsite

The extracted power from wind is clean, plentiful, and completely renewable. All over the world, researchers keep looking for the best layouts of wind parks to maximize captured energy. To design wind farms suitably, forecast their performance, and understand the strain loads of wind turbines, there is a persistent need to catch a perfect wake model. Wind turbine wakes are one of the most vital factors in the meteorology of wind power due to reducing the power production and the necessity to raise the downstream capacity of wind turbines. This study is divided into two main aspects: firstly, enhancing the optimal layout for the wind turbines at a farm using Marine Predators Algorithm (MPA). The Jensen wake model is applied to get the extracted power for each turbine, which is one of the mutual analytic models used to reach the optimized layout. By comparing the performance of the proposed algorithm with the previous studies achieved by several techniques, the obtained results revealed that the MPA achieves promising results. Secondly, the proposed algorithm is applied for four sites in Egypt as the fraction of occurrence for the selected locations has been adequately calculated using wind speed over five years.

Curriculum Vitae

EDUCATION DETAILS:

Ismail, M., M. H. Alham, and D. K. Ibrahim, "A novel approach for optimal hybrid energy decarbonization using multi-criteria decision analysis: Abu Rudeis, Egypt as a case study", Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 290, issue 15 August , pp. Article no. 117199, 2023. AbstractWebsite

Converting from a complete fossil fuel energy system to a decarbonized one is crucial to mitigating climate
change and protecting human health. Hybrid energy sources are better than producing energy from a single
technology. The combination of renewable energy and fuel generators allows users to cover seasonal fluctuations of resources and protects them from the unpredictability of fuel prices and supply. Nonetheless, the large-scale industrial demand presents a real challenge due to its consistency throughout the day and the intermittent nature of renewable sources. This research proposes a novel approach for optimal hybrid energy decarbonization for any demand type in general and industrial demand in particular. The proposed framework is developed by integrating the Hybrid Optimization of Multiple Energy Resources (HOMER) for the simulations of Hybrid Configurations (HCs), the Electrical Transient Analysis Program (ETAP) for the stability studies, and the Potentially All Pairwise RanKings of all possible Alternatives (PAPRIKA) method to rank the resulting configurations.
An industrial oil and gas complex with high wind and solar resource availability is adopted as a study case. It is
located in Abu Rudeis, Egypt, and currently utilizes only 11 Gas Turbine Generators (GTGs) to generate electricity. Five different HCs are investigated, including PV and wind systems. The proposed approach considers technical, environmental, economic, and socio-political criteria, with a total of 21 sub-criteria, and reveals that incorporating a wind farm of nine 2-MW wind turbines with the GTGs is the Optimal Hybrid Configuration (OHC).

Boghdady, T. A., I. A. Sweed, and D. K. Ibrahim, "Performance Enhancement of Doubly-Fed Induction Generator-Based-Wind Energy System", International Journal of Renewable Energy Research, vol. 13, issue 1, pp. 311-325, 2023. AbstractWebsite

Nowadays, the challenging errand is enhancing the wind energy system (WES) performance to be more competitive and economically viable. One of the best ways to enhance the performance of the doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG)-based-WES is the optimization of the proportional-integral (PI) controllers for the variable frequency converter system. Many objectives with different optimization techniques have been used in literature to achieve optimal performance. Each choice has its advantages and disadvantages. This paper presents a new design approach for better performance of PI controllers and, hence DFIG over a wide range of operating conditions through two main themes. The first is by introducing a new multi-objective formulation, while the second is utilizing recent optimization techniques like Grey Wolf Optimizer and Whale Optimization Algorithm. Four PI controllers are optimized using a traditional objective function and the proposed multi-objective formulation. Two are related to the Rotor Side Converter (RSC), named power regulator, and the main rotor side converter current regulator. The other two PI controllers related to Grid Side Converter (GSC) are the DC-link voltage regulator and the main grid-side converter current regulator. A performance comparison is held through normal and abnormal operating conditions on a simulation model of a 6 MW wind farm located in Jabal Alzayt along the Red Sea Coast in Egypt and directly connected to the grid. The results confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed approach to help the DFIG-based-WES to agree with the Egyptian Grid Code during disturbances compared with the traditional objective formulation.

Khalil, E. A., T. a. Boghdady, M. H. Alham, and D. K. Ibrahim, "Enhancing the Conventional Controllers for Load Frequency Control of Isolated Microgrids Using Proposed Multi-Objective Formulation Via Artificial Rabbits Optimization Algorithm", IEEE Access, vol. 11, pp. 3472- 3493, 2023. AbstractWebsite

Isolated microgrids (IMGs) power remote areas. However, IMG may lower the frequency stability and increase frequency excursions with low system inertia. Load frequency management ensures system stability. Thus, the paper proposes a novel multi-objective tuning strategy to improve IMG's load frequency control (LFC) and take the microgrid controller's control signals into account. Diesel engine generator, fuel cell, battery energy storage system, and renewable energy sources (RESs) like photovoltaic and wind systems make up the IMG. Conventional controllers such as proportional-integral (PI) and proportional integral derivative (PID) are classically tuned based on the standard error criteria as a traditional single-objective tuning approach. Due to the low inertia of the system and the stochastic nature of RES, they cannot act as required under different operating scenarios. Therefore, the PI and PID controllers are tuned using the proposed multi-objective-based tuning approach to reduce the frequency deviations. In addition, anti-windup is applied to the enhanced classic controllers to keep them distant from the nonlinear zone and beyond the source's physical constraints. The proposed tuning process also considers the maximum practical generation rates for different sources. The recent Artificial Rabbits Optimization (ARO) algorithm is applied to simultaneously adjust the controller parameters for several controlled sources in IMG. Extensive simulations in MATLAB and Simulink confirm the effectiveness of the proposed approach to keep the system stable even when facing high levels of disturbances. In addition, accomplishing sensitivity analysis, severe +-25% changes to the system's parameters guarantee that the proposed tuning strategy keeps the system stable.

Alham, M. H., M. F. Gad, and D. K. Ibrahim, "Potential of Wind Energy and Economic Assessment in Egypt Considering Optimal Hub Height by Equilibrium Optimizer", Ain Shams Engineering Journal, vol. 14, issue 1, pp. Article no.101816, 2023. Abstract

In Egypt, the wind market increases quickly to make it one of the top countries in the Middle East. This
study discusses the viability of wind resources and the economic assessment for four locations in Egypt:
Ras El-Hekma, Farafra, Nuweiba, and Aswan through two stages. In the first stage, the optimal hub height
for some wind turbines has been calculated by using Equilibrium Optimizer (EO) algorithm to achieve
maximum wind energy with overall minimum cost. The second stage, the economic assessment has been
evaluated by using such turbines to calculate the cost of energy (COE) compared to the global and
Egyptian production costs of wind energy. Developed MATLAB programs are applied for statistical analysis
of wind data. The results have shown that Ras El-Hekma’s average wind speed is higher than other
sites and its wind energy potential is the best. Moreover, the economic assessment for selected locations
turns out that Ras El-Hekma by using EWT-DW61/22 turbine has the lowest COE.

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