Ultrahigh verapamil-loaded controlled release polymeric beads using superamphiphobic substrate: D-optimal statistical design, in vitro and in vivo performance.

Citation:
Yousry, C., M. M. Amin, A. H. Elshafeey, and O. N. Elgazayerly, "Ultrahigh verapamil-loaded controlled release polymeric beads using superamphiphobic substrate: D-optimal statistical design, in vitro and in vivo performance.", Drug delivery, vol. 25, issue 1, pp. 1448-1460, 2018 Nov.

Abstract:

Controlled-release multiparticulate systems of hydrophilic drugs usually suffer from poor encapsulation and rapid-release rate. In the present study, ultra-high loaded controlled release polymeric beads containing verapamil hydrochloride (VP) as hydrophilic model drug were efficiently prepared using superamphiphobic substrates aiming to improve patient compliance by reducing dosing frequency. Superamphiphobic substrates were fabricated using clean aluminum sheets etched with ammonia solution and were treated with 1.5% (w/v) perfluorodecyltriethoxysilane (PFDTS) alcoholic solution. The effect of the main polymer type (lactide/glycolide (PLGA) 5004A, PLGA 5010, and polycaprolactone (PCL)), copolymer (Eudragit RS100) content together with the effect of drug load on encapsulation efficiency (EE%) and in vitro drug release was statistically studied and optimized via D-optimal statistical design. In vivo pharmacokinetic study was carried out to compare the optimized system relative to the market product (Isoptin). Results revealed that superamphiphobic substrates were successfully prepared showing a rough micro-sized hierarchical structured surface upon observing with scanning electron microscope and were confirmed by high contact angles of 151.60 ± 2.42 and 142.80°±05.23° for water and olive oil, respectively. The fabricated VP-loaded beads showed extremely high encapsulation efficiency exceeding 92.31% w/w. All the prepared systems exhibited a controlled release behavior with Q12 h ranging between 5.46 and 95.90%w/w. The optimized VP-loaded system composed of 150 mg (1.5% w/v) PCL without Eudragit RS100 together with 160 mg VP showed 2.7-folds mean residence time compared to the market product allowing once daily administration instead of three times per day.