Integrated nanovesicular/self-nanoemulsifying system (INV/SNES) for enhanced dual ocular drug delivery: statistical optimization, in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

Citation:
Yousry, C., P. M. Zikry, H. M. Salem, E. B. Basalious, and O. N. El-Gazayerly, "Integrated nanovesicular/self-nanoemulsifying system (INV/SNES) for enhanced dual ocular drug delivery: statistical optimization, in vitro and in vivo evaluation.", Drug delivery and translational research, 2020.

Abstract:

Ocular drug administration is usually problematic and suffers low bioavailability due to several physiological and biological factors that hinder their effective treatment. Terconazole (TZ) is considered as one of the effective ocular antifungal agents that is usually administrated intravitreally for higher efficacy. The aim of the work in this study is to formulate a TZ-loaded ocular drug delivery system with high efficiency and good tolerability. First, TZ-loaded bile-based nanovesicles (BBNV) were prepared and the formulation variables (namely, Span 60, cholesterol, and sodium deoxycholate levels) were optimized based on the results of the entrapment efficiency (EE%), particle size (PS), and zeta potential (ZP) using Box-Behnken statistical design. The optimized system was formulated using 73.59 mg Span 60, 1.28 mg cholesterol, and 3.11 mg sodium deoxycholate. The formulated system showed vesicles with PS of 526 nm, - 42.2 mV ZP, and 93.86% EE%. TZ release, cellular uptake, and cytotoxicity of the optimized system were evaluated in vitro. In addition, in vivo assessment of its safety was conducted histopathologically and via ocular irritation test to ensure the ocular tolerance of the system. Afterwards, the optimized TZ-loaded BBNV was integrated into a self-nanoemulsifying system (SNES) to allow faster TZ release for immediate antifungal effect, enhanced ocular residence, and improved ocular permeation. TZ release study revealed more than 2 folds increment in drug release rate from the integrated system compared to BBNV alone. Finally, this integrated system was assessed for its antifungal activity in vivo where it demonstrated higher antifungal activity against induced Candida albicans infection. Graphical abstract.

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